• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Economic impact
  • Policies
  • Contextual factors
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2019

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:14965
Area covered:National
References:Institute for Public Health (IPH), National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia. 2020. National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2019: Vol. I: NCDs – Non-Communicable Diseases: Risk Factors and other Health Problems
Notes:Sample size includes approx 5000 children
Definitions:Standard definitions. Malaysian Clinical Practice Guideline of Obesity (2004) cut offs are also available on MOH website
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:29460
Area covered:National
References:Institute for Public Health (IPH) 2015. National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015 (NHMS 2015). Vol. II: Non-Communicable Diseases, Risk Factors & Other Health Problems; 2015.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2007-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:4428
Area covered:National
References:Mohamud WN, Musa KI, Khir AS, Ismail AA, Ismail IS, Kadir KA, Kamaruddin NA, Yaacob NA, Mustafa N, Ali O, Isa SH, Bebakar WM.Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult Malaysians: an update. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2011;20(1):35-41.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:33464
Area covered:National
References:Khambalia AZ, Seen LS. Trends in overweight and obese adults in Malaysia (1996-2009): a systematic review. Obesity Reviews 2010; 11:403-412
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1996

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Sample size:30165
References:Ismail MN, Chee SS, Nawawi H, Yusoff K, Lim TO and James WPT. (2002). Obesity in Malaysia. Onesity Reviews, 3: 203 - 208.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1993-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:18-64
Sample size:4747
References:Ismail MN, Zawaih H, Chee SS, Ng KK. Prevalence of obesity and chronic energy deficiency (CED) in adult Malaysians. Malays J Nutrition. 1995; 1:1-9
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2019

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:~ 3500
Area covered:National
References:NHMS 2019. Institute for Public Health (IKU) available at http://www.iku.gov.my/nhms-2019 (last accessed 17.09.20)
Definitions:WHO
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2012

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:13-17
Sample size:25507
Area covered:National
References:Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), available at https://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/gshs/Malaysia_2012_GSHS_FS_national.pdf?ua=1 (last accessed 14.12.20)
Notes:WHO cutoffs.
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-12
Sample size:7749
Area covered:National
References:Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III, 2006) published in Naidu BM, Mahmud SZ, Ambak R et al. Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2013;22 (3):408-415
Notes:IOTF International Cut Off Used for Overweight and obesity
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by education

Adults, 2019

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:9935
Area covered:National
References:Institute for Public Health (IPH), National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia. 2020. National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2019: Vol. I: NCDs – Non-Communicable Diseases: Risk Factors and other Health Problems
Notes:Malaysian specific cut offs also available
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2014-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12
Sample size:3798
Area covered:Regional - Terengganu
References:Ahmad, Aryati, et al. “Association between Socioeconomic Status and Obesity among 12-Year-Old Malaysian Adolescents.” PLOS ONE, vol. 13, no. 7, 25 July 2018, p. e0200577, 10.1371/journal.pone.0200577. Accessed 01.11.21.
Notes:Urban schools
Definitions:Mother's education level
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-12
Sample size:7749
Area covered:National
References:Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III, 2006) published in Naidu BM, Mahmud SZ, Ambak R et al. Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2013;22 (3):408-415
Notes:IOTF International Cut Off
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by age

Adults, 2019

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:9935
Area covered:National
References:Institute for Public Health (IPH), National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia. 2020. National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2019: Vol. I: NCDs – Non-Communicable Diseases: Risk Factors and other Health Problems
Notes:Malaysian specific cut offs also available
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2012

Survey type:Self-reported
Sample size:25,507
Area covered:National
References:Global School-Based Student Health Survey Factsheet Malaysia 2012. Available at: https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/default-source/ncds/ncd-surveillance/data-reporting/malaysia/gshs/malaysia-2012-gshs-fs-national.pdf?sfvrsn=56e59de7_3&download=true. Accessed 05.10.21.

Overweight/obesity by region

Adults, 2019

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:9935
Area covered:National
References:Institute for Public Health (IPH), National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia. 2020. National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2019: Vol. I: NCDs – Non-Communicable Diseases: Risk Factors and other Health Problems
Notes:Malaysia specific cut offs also available
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2019

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:3179
Area covered:National
References:National Health and Morbidity Survey 2019. Available at: http://iku.gov.my/images/IKU/Document/REPORT/NHMS2019/Report_NHMS2019-NCD_v2.pdf. Accessed 01.11.21.
Definitions:BMI-for-Age
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-12
Sample size:7749
Area covered:National
References:Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III, 2006) published in Naidu BM, Mahmud SZ, Ambak R et al. Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2013;22 (3):408-415
Notes:IOTF International Cut Off
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Adults, 2019

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:9935
Area covered:National
References:Institute for Public Health (IPH), National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia. 2020. National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2019: Vol. I: NCDs – Non-Communicable Diseases: Risk Factors and other Health Problems
Notes:Malaysian Cut off also available
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2019

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:3179
Area covered:National
References:National Health and Morbidity Survey 2019. Available at: http://iku.gov.my/images/IKU/Document/REPORT/NHMS2019/Report_NHMS2019-NCD_v2.pdf. Accessed 01.11.21.
Notes:Household Income Category
Definitions:BMI-for-Age
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-12
Sample size:7749
Area covered:National
References:Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III, 2006) published in Naidu BM, Mahmud SZ, Ambak R et al. Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2013;22 (3):408-415
Notes:IOTF International Cut Off Parental Income (RM)
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by ethnicity

Ethnic groups are as defined by publication of origin and are not as defined by WOF. In some instances ethnicity is conflated with nationality and/or race.

Adults, 2019

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:9935
Area covered:National
References:Institute for Public Health (IPH), National Institutes of Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia. 2020. National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2019: Vol. I: NCDs – Non-Communicable Diseases: Risk Factors and other Health Problems
Notes:Malaysian specific cut offs also available
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2019

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:3179
Area covered:National
References:National Health and Morbidity Survey 2019. Available at: http://iku.gov.my/images/IKU/Document/REPORT/NHMS2019/Report_NHMS2019-NCD_v2.pdf. Accessed 01.11.21.
Definitions:BMI-for-Age
Cutoffs:WHO

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Average daily frequency of carbonated soft drink consumption

Children, 2010-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system

Estimated per capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Prevalence of less than daily fruit consumption

Children, 2010-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Global School-based Student Health Surveys. Beal et al (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287. Sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily fruit consumption (% less-than-daily fruit consumption)

Prevalence of less than daily vegetable consumption

Children, 2010-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily vegetable consumption (% less-than-daily vegetable consumption)

Average weekly frequency of fast food consumption

Children, 2010-2015

Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

% Infants exclusively breastfed 0-5 months

Children, 2004-2020

Area covered:National
References:Malaysia National Health and Morbidity Survey 2016
Notes:See UNICEF website for further survey information. Available at : https://data.unicef.org/resources/dataset/infant-young-child-feeding/ (last accessed 28.9.21) Citation: United Nations Children’s Fund, Division of Data, Analysis, Planning and Monitoring (2021). Global UNICEF Global Databases: Infant and Young Child Feeding: Exclusive breastfeeding, New York, September 2021.
Definitions:% exclusively breastfed 0-5 months

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Breast cancer

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, breast, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, cervix uteri, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2021

Age:20-79
Area covered:National
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation.  IDF Diabetes Atlas, 10th edn. Brussels, Belgium:International Diabetes Federation, 2021. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Age-adjusted comparative prevalence of diabetes, %

Adults, 2019

Age:20-79
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th edn. Brussels,Belgium: 2019. Available at: https://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Total economic cost as % of GDP

Country comparisons

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Policies, Interventions and Actions

Malaysia Sugar Tax

Excise duty of RM0.40/litre (about US$0.095) was applied to all manufactured beverages, including carbonated drinks containing added sugar/other sweeteners and other non-alcoholic beverages, containing sugar exceeding 5g/100ml; and all fruit and vegetable juices regardless of whether the juices contain added sugar/other sweeteners which contain sugar exceeding 12g/100ml

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2019 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Customs Department Malaysia
Find out more:www.customs.gov.my
References:Information provided with kind permission of World Cancer Research Fund International from their NOURISHING framework https://www.wcrf.org/int/policy/nourishing-database

Healthier Choice Logo

On 20 April 2017, the Minister of Health of Malaysia launched the Healthier Choice Logo in collaboration with food and beverages industries in Malaysia. The objectives of the Healthier Choice Logo are to: help consumers quickly identify healthier products within the same food category; assist consumers in making informed food choices through authentication of the logo displayed on the food products; educate the public on the use of approved products within a healthy and balanced eating pattern; and encourage and promote good practices among food industries in producing “healthier choice” products. Implementation of the Healthier Choice Logo is voluntary. Products bearing the logo indicate they meet a set of nutrient criteria, which exist for 42 sub-categories of foods and beverages. As of 15 May 2017, 48 products from various food and beverage companies have the Healthier Choice Logo.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
References:https://policydatabase.wcrf.org/level_one?page=nourishing-level-one#step2=0#step3=309

NCD Country Profiles 2018 (Obesity Targets)

The profiles also provide data on the key metabolic risk factors, namely raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose and obesity and National Targets on Obesity (as of 2017)

Categories:Evidence of Obesity Target
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:World Health Organisation
References:Noncommunicable diseases country profiles 2018. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysia. A report of the technical working group

Malaysia faces the double burden of malnutrition. The burden of NCDs continue to rise in Malaysia and unhealthy diet is one of the major risk factors for NCD. Malaysian nowadays are living in an obesogenic environment that leads to sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy eating habits. The report has been created to to assist Malaysians in achieving, sustaining and maintaining a certain level of health status as the RNI's as they form the basis in setting up or establishing nutrition requirement in any nutritional guidelines.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Healrh
Linked document:Download linked document

National Plan of Action for Nutrition of Malaysia III 2016-2025

Updated plan of action to ehnhance nutritional status of population and prevent or reduce NCD's

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2016-2025
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:National Coordinating Committee on Food and Nutrition (NCCFN), MINISTRY OF HEALTH MALAYSIA
Find out more:nutrition.moh.gov.my
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Ministry of Health Malaysia, 2016. National Plan Of Action For Nutrition Of Malaysia III 2016-2025. National Coordinating Committee on Food and Nutrition (NCCFN).

National Strategic Plan for Non-Communicable Disease Medium term Strategic Plan to further strengthen the NCD Prevention and Control program in Malaysia (2016-2025)

Categories:Evidence of NCD strategy
Year(s):2016-2025
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Malaysia
Linked document:Download linked document

Malaysian Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents

The Malaysian Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents comprise 15 key messages and 67 key recommendations for healthy children and adolescents from birth to 18 years of age

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Organisation:NATIONAL COORDINATING COMMITTEE ON FOOD AND NUTRITION (NCCFN)
Linked document:Download linked document
References:MALAYSIAN DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS. National Coordinating Committee on Food and Nutrition Ministry of Health Malaysia 2013

Malaysian Food and Beverage Industry's "Responsible Advertising to Children" Initiative

Voluntary self-regulatory pledge on responsible marketing of food and drink to children.

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Malaysian Food and Beverage Industry
Find out more:ifballiance.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Information provided with kind permission of The International Food & Beverage Alliance: www.ifballiance.org

The Guide for Healthy School Canteen Management

The Guide for Healthy School Canteen Management (2012), developed by the Ministry of Education and mandatory for public schools, categorises food items into those which may be sold, those which are not encouraged to be sold and those whose sale is prohibited in school canteens. Prohibited food includes sweets, preserved food, extruded snacks containing artificial flavours and colourings (which are snacks mainly based on corn flour or a combination of flours undergoing extrusion and then coating with a combination of vegetable oil and seasoning), and food and beverages containing alcohol. The list of prohibited food is under review (2016), in particular with respect to carbonated drinks.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2012 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
References:https://policydatabase.wcrf.org/level_one?page=nourishing-level-one#step2=1#step3=337

Malaysia Dietary Guidelines 2010

The guidelines are aimed at health care providers to assist them in educating the public on improving their health through sound dietary practices. It is also intended to act as a tool for promoting healthy eating and achieving the National Plan of Action for Nutrition of Malaysia.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health Malaysia
Find out more:www.moh.gov.my
Linked document:Download linked document
References:National Coordinating Committee on Food and Nutrition, Ministry of Health 2010.

National Plan of Action for Nutrition Malaysia (2006-2015) - NPANM

NPANM aims to enhance the nutritional status of the population and prevent and control diet-related non-communicable diseases.

Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2006-2015
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health

Strategy for the Prevention of Obesity - Malaysia

This strategy contains recommendations to help prevent normal weight individuals from becoming overweight or obese.

Categories:Non-national obesity strategies
Year(s):2005 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Malaysian Association for the Study of Obesity (MASO) in collaboration with the Ministry of Health Malaysia
Find out more:www.maso.org.my
References:Malaysian Association for the Study of Obesity (MASO). http://www.maso.org.my/ (last accessed 29 Feb 2016)

Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of Obesity 2004

Guidelines for obesity management, prevention and treatment for use by health professionals.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2004 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Academy of Medicine of Malaysia
Find out more:www.acadmed.org.my
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Academy of Medicine of Malaysia. 2004. Clinical Practice Guidelines on management of Obesity 2004. Available from: http://www.acadmed.org.my/index.cfm?menuid=67. [Accessed 7th January 2019].

National Food Safety and Nutrition Council

Highest advisory body to the government on issues related to food and nutrition in the country.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2001 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Minsitry of Health
Find out more:nutrition.moh.gov.my
References:https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/27045

GNPR 2016-17 (q7) Breastfeeeding promotion and/or counselling

WHO Global Nutrition Policy Review 2016-2017 reported the evidence of breastfeeding promotion and/or counselling (q7)

Categories:Evidence of Breastfeeding promotion or related activity
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Ministry of Health (information provided by the GINA progam)
Find out more:extranet.who.int
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en

NASPAL 2016-2025

National Strategic Action Plan for Active Living 2016-2025

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Target age group:Adults and children
Linked document:Download linked document

Policy Options to Combat Obesity in Malaysia

Malaysian obesity policy action plan in line with National Plan of Action for Nutrition of Malaysia.

Categories:Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action plan
Target age group:Children
Linked document:Download linked document

The Malaysian Guide to Nutrition Labelling and Claims

In Malaysia, a nutrient list detailing energy, protein, carbohydrates and fat per 100g/100ml and per serving must be provided on select categories of packaged food, including bread, confectionery, dairy products, canned food, fruit juices, salad dressings and mayonnaise; ready-to-drink beverages must also include total sugars. A nutrient list is also mandatory for any product bearing a nutrition claim, products with added vitamins and minerals, and special purpose food for infants and young children. Details are provided in the Malaysian Guide to Nutrition Labelling and Claims (2010), which reflects labelling legislation from 2003 (as incorporated into the Food Act of 1983 and Food Regulations of 1985) and subsequent amendments.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Target age group:Adults and children
References:https://policydatabase.wcrf.org/level_one?page=nourishing-level-one#step2=0#step3=327

No actions could be found for the above criteria.

Contextual factors

Disclaimer: These contextual factors should be interpreted with care. Results are updated as regularly as possible and use very specific criteria. The criteria used and full definitions are available for download at the bottom of this page.

Tap on a tick to find out more about policies influencing this factor.

Labelling

Is there mandatory nutrition labelling?Present
Front-of-package labelling?Present-(voluntary)
Back-of-pack nutrition declaration?Present
Color coding?Absent
Warning label?Absent

Regulation and marketing

Are there fiscal policies on unhealthy products?Present
Tax on unhealthy foods?Absent
Tax on unhealthy drinks?Present
Are there fiscal policies on healthy products?Absent
Subsidy on fruits?Absent
Subsidy on vegetables?Absent
Subsidy on other healthy products?Absent
Mandatory limit or ban of trans fat (all settings)?Absent
Mandatory limit of trans fats in place (all settings)? Absent
Ban on trans-fats or phos in place (all settings)? Absent
Are there any mandatory policies/marketing restrictions on the promotion of unhealthy food/drinks to children?Absent
Mandatory restriction on broadcast media?Incoming
Mandatory restriction on non-broadcast media?Absent
Voluntary policies/marketing restrictions on the promotion of unhealthy food/drinks to children?Present
Are there mandatory standards for food in schools?Present
Are there any mandatory nutrient limits in any manufactured food products?Absent
Nutrition standards for public sector procurement?Absent

Political will and support

National obesity strategy or nutrition and physical activity national strategy?Present
National obesity strategy?Present
National childhood obesity strategy?Present
Comprehensive nutrition strategy?Present
Comprehensive physical activity strategy?Present
Evidence-based dietary guidelines and/or RDAs?Present
National target(s) on reducing obesity?Present
Guidelines/policy on obesity treatment?Present
Promotion of breastfeeding?Present

Monitoring and surveillance

Monitoring of the prevalence and incidence for the main obesity-related NCDs and risk factors?Present
Within 5 years?Present

Governance and resource

Multi-sectoral national co-ordination mechanism for obesity or nutrition (including obesity)?Present

Key

Present
Present (voluntary)
Incoming
Absent
Unknown

Last updated September 13, 2022

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Download contextual factors as a PDF Contextual factors definitions

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