• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Actions
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:18-69
Sample size:3858
Area covered:National
References:Tonga STEPS Survey 2017 https://extranet.who.int/ncdsmicrodata/index.php/catalog/713 (Last accessed 13.10.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-64
Sample size:2599
Area covered:National
References:STEPS Survey Tonga 2012 available at https://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/steps/2012_Tonga_STEPSReport.pdf (last accessed 04.05.2020)
Notes:STEPS
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-64
Sample size:958
Area covered:National
References:Tonga STEPS Survey 2004
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1998-2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-85
Sample size:1024
Area covered:National
References:Colaguir S, Colagiuri R, Na'ati S, Muimuiheata S, Hussain Z and Palau T. (2002). The prevalence of diabetes in the Kingdom of Tonga. Diabetes care, 25: 1378 - 1383.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2017

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:13-17
Sample size:3333
Area covered:National
References:Tonga - Global School-Based Student Health Survey 2017 https://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/gshs/tonga/en/ (Last accessed 20.10.20)
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2002-2003

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-11
Sample size:895
References:Shoko Fukuyama a;  Tsukasa Inaoka b;  Yasuhiro Matsumura c;  Taro Yamauchi a;  Kazumi Natsuhara d;  Ryosuke kimura e; Ryutaro Ohtsuka f. Anthropometry of 5-19-year-old Tongan children with special interest in the high prevalence of obesity among adolescent girls. Annals of Human Biology, Volume 32, Issue 6 November 2005 , pages 714 - 723
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by age

Adults, 2012

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:2599
Area covered:National
References:STEPS Survey Tonga 2012 available at https://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/steps/2012_Tonga_STEPSReport.pdf (last accessed 04.05.2020)
Notes:STEPS
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Average daily frequency of carbonated soft drink consumption

Children, 2010-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system

Estimated per-capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Prevalence of less-than-daily fruit consumption

Children, 2010-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Global School-based Student Health Surveys. Beal et al (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287. Sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily fruit consumption (% less-than-daily fruit consumption)

Prevalence of less-than-daily vegetable consumption

Children, 2010-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily vegetable consumption (% less-than-daily vegetable consumption)

Average weekly frequency of fast food consumption

Children, 2010-2015

Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per-capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Actions

National Strategy for prevention and control of non communicable diseases 2015-2020

Year(s):2015-2020
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health Tonga, Tonga Health
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Tonga Health Promotion Foundation (TongaHealth). Hala Fononga Path to Good Health Ki Ha Tonga Mo'ui Lelei: National strategy for prevention and control of non-communicable diseases 2015–2020. (Kingdom of Tonga, Australian Aid, World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, Tonga Health eds.).Tonga: National Non-Communicable Diseases Committee; 2016.

Public health evidence related to obesity in Tonga - a literature review

Categories:Health Effectiveness Reviews (obesity related)
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministy of Health Tonga & Tonga Health
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Michelle Kermode, Gregory Armstrong, Sara Gloede, Seini Filai, Reynold Ofanoa, Sione Hufunga, Ofa Tukia. Public health evidence related to obesity in Tonga- Literature Review. Ministry of Health 2015

Tax on sugary drinks

Soft drinks containing sugar or sweeteners are taxed at T$0.5 per litre, this increased to T$1.5 by 2017.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government of Tonga
Find out more:ago.gov.to
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Information provided with kind permission of the World Cancer Research Fund International (WCRF) NOURISHING Framework. http://www.wcrf.org/int/policy/nourishing-framework

Obesity, Healthy Eating and Physical Activity trends in Tonga and the implications for the prevention and control of NCDs

The report recommends priority groups and behaviours to maximise the health impact of new NCD Strategy

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Evidence of NCD strategy
Categories (partial):Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministy of Health Tonga & Tonga Health
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Obesity, healthy eating and physical activity health trends in Tonga and the implications for the prevention and control of NCDs. Dr Toakase Fakakovikaetau, Saia Faletau, Seini Filiai, Sara Gloede,Sione Hufanga, Dr Veisinia Matoto, Elisiva Naati, Dr Reynold 'Ofanoa, Dr Taniela Palu, Dr 'Ofa Tukia. Published by Ministry of Health Tonga & Tonga Health

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