• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:18-59
Sample size:6602
Area covered:National
References:Huang, Q., Wang, L., Jiang, H., Wang, H., Zhang, B., Zhang, J., Jia, X. and Wang, Z., 2020. Intra-Individual Double Burden of Malnutrition among Adults in China: Evidence from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2015. Nutrients, 12(9), p.2811.
Notes:3699 men and 2903 women
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:16,161,982
Area covered:Regional
References:He Y, Pan A, Wang Y, Yang Y, Xu J, Zhang Y, Liu D, Wang Q, Shen H, Zhang Y, Yan D, Peng Z, Hu FB & Ma X.2017. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in 15.8 million men aged 15–49 years in rural China from 2010 to 2014. Scientific Reports. 7(5012). DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-04135-4.
Notes:Rural OVERWEIGHT WAS DEFINED AS BMI≥24.0kg/m2 AND OBESITY AS BMI≥28.0kg/m2 according to chinese criteria
Definitions:OVERWEIGHT WAS DEFINED AS BMI≥24.0kg/m2 AND OBESITY AS BMI≥28.0kg/m2 according to chinese criteria
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2011

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:12249
Area covered:National
References:2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey.
Notes:OBESITY WAS DEFINED AS BMI ≥28.0 BASED ON THE WORKING GROUP ON OBESITY IN CHINA CRITERIA
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:8315
Area covered:National
References:Yan, S., Li, J., Li, S., Zhang, B., Du, S., Gordon-Larsen, P., Adair, L. and Popkin, B. (2012), The expanding burden of cardiometabolic risk in China: the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Obesity Reviews. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01016.x
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2002

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:221044
Area covered:National
References:Report of the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. 2004. (In Chinese). Chinese Ministry of Public Health (CMPH).
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1997

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1993

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1991-1995

Survey type:Measured
Age:35-59
Sample size:9213
References:Zhou BF, Wu Yangfeng, Yang Jun, Li Ying, Zhang H, Zhao L. Overweight is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in Chinese populations. Obesity Reviews 2002;3:147-156
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1989

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-45
Sample size:2487
References:Bell AC, Ge K, Popkin BM. Weight gain and its predictors in Chinese adults. International Journal of Obesity 2;25:1079-1086001
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
Sample size:1617
Area covered:National
References:Zhang J, Wang H, Wang Z, Du W, Su C, Zhang J, Jiang H, Jia X, Huang F, Ouyang Y, Wang Y, Zhang B.Prevalence and stabilizing trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in China, 2011-2015. BMC Public Health. 2018 May 2;18(1):571. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5483-9.
Notes:IOTF Internation Cut off. WHO & WGOC also available
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
References:Zhang, J., Wang, H., Wang, Z. et al. Prevalence and stabilizing trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in China, 2011-2015. BMC Public Health 18, 571 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5483-9
Notes:Overweight and obesity defined using WGOC Criteria
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:29418
Area covered:National
References:Yunping Zhou, Qian Zhang, Tao Wang, Yanqing Zhang & Bo Xu. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents from 2015. Annals of Human Biology 2017;44:642-643 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03014460.2017.1371224
Notes:85th/95th Centiles Based on Chinese Reference Data see original article for details
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2014-2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-14
Sample size:325,083
Area covered:Regional
References:Zhang et al. 2018. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school-aged children in Jiangsu Province, China, 2014-2017.PLoS One. 2018; 13(8): e0202681.
Notes:Subnational (Jiangsu Province) Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) BMI definition used
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2011

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
References:Zhang, J., Wang, H., Wang, Z. et al. Prevalence and stabilizing trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in China, 2011-2015. BMC Public Health 18, 571 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5483-9
Notes:Overweight and obesity defined using WGOC Criteria
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-9
Sample size:215,203
Area covered:National
References:Sun H, Ma Y, Han D, Pan C-W, Xu Y. Prevalence and Trends in Obesity among China’s Children and Adolescents, 1985–2010. Gonzalez-Bulnes A, ed. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(8):e105469. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105469.
Notes:Sample size for all children for all ages 7-18 A subject was considered obese or overweight if weight-for-height exceeded the 20% or 10% of standard weight-for-height. The standard weight-for-height was the 80th percentile for sex- and age-specific growth charts.
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-12
Sample size:1368
Area covered:National
References:Liang YJ, Xi B, Song AQ, Liu JX, Mi J. Trends in general and abdominal obesity. Pediatric Obesity 2012 Vol 7 (5):355-64
Notes:Overweight includes obesity. Data for overweight and obesity were not available separately. IOTF Cut off's used.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2002

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-17
Sample size:44880
Area covered:National
References:Yanping L, Evert GS, Xiaoqi H, Zhaohui C, Dechun L and Guansheng M. 2008. Obesity prevalence and time trend among youngsters in china, 1982 - 2002. Asia Pac Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 17(1):131 - 137.
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1999-2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:11
Area covered:National
References:Bellizzi MC, Horgan GW, Guillaume M, Dietz WH. Prevalence of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity in Asian and European countries. In: Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence. Editors: Chunming Chen, William H. Dietz. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series Pediatric Program. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2002
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1992

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-17
Sample size:15501
References:Li Y,, Schouten EG, Hu X et al. Obesity prevalence and time trend among youngsters in China, 1982-2002. Published in Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Our version from Book - Li Y. Childhood Obesity in China: prevalence, determinants and health. Chapter 2
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1982

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-17
Sample size:10127
Area covered:National
References:Li Y,, Schouten EG, Hu X et al. Obesity prevalence and time trend among youngsters in China, 1982-2002. Published in Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Our version from Book - Li Y. Childhood Obesity in China: prevalence, determinants and health.
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by education

Adults, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:18-59
Sample size:6602
Area covered:National
References:Huang, Q., Wang, L., Jiang, H., Wang, H., Zhang, B., Zhang, J., Jia, X. and Wang, Z., 2020. Intra-Individual Double Burden of Malnutrition among Adults in China: Evidence from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2015. Nutrients, 12(9), p.2811.
Notes:3699 men and 2903 women
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2011

Survey type:Measured
Age:18-79
Sample size:6651
Area covered:Beijing
References:Cai L, Han X, Qi Z, Li Z, Zhang Y, Wang P, et al. (2014) Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Weight Loss Practice among Beijing Adults, 2011. PLoS ONE 9(9): e98744. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098744
Notes:The Chinese BMI classifications: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 18.5–23.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 24–27.9 kg/m2), and obesity (BMI≥28 kg/m2).
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2011

Survey type:Measured
Age:18-79
Sample size:6651
Area covered:Beijing
References:Cai L, Han X, Qi Z, Li Z, Zhang Y, Wang P, et al. (2014) Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Weight Loss Practice among Beijing Adults, 2011. PLoS ONE 9(9): e98744. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098744
Notes:The Chinese BMI classifications: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 18.5–23.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 24–27.9 kg/m2), and obesity (BMI≥28 kg/m2).
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-12
Sample size:9917
Area covered:Regional - Guangzhou (urban setting)
References:Liu W, Liu W, Lin R, et al. Socioeconomic determinants of childhood obesity among primary school children in Guangzhou, China. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:482. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3171-1.
Notes:BMI standard deviation scores (BMI z-score) were derived using the age (calculated by subtracting the date of birth from the date of examination) and sex specific WHO growth reference for school-aged children, which were further classified as non-overweight (≤1SD), overweight (>1SD) and obese (>2SD). Overweight and obesity prevalence by Father's education. Education was categorised into low (primary and junior high school level), medium (senior high and vocational school level) or high (university level or higher).
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-12
Sample size:9917
Area covered:Regional - Guangzhou (urban setting)
References:Liu W, Liu W, Lin R, et al. Socioeconomic determinants of childhood obesity among primary school children in Guangzhou, China. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:482. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3171-1.
Notes:BMI standard deviation scores (BMI z-score) were derived using the age (calculated by subtracting the date of birth from the date of examination) and sex specific WHO growth reference for school-aged children, which were further classified as non-overweight (≤1SD), overweight (>1SD) and obese (>2SD). Overweight and obesity prevalence by Father's education. Education was categorised into low (primary and junior high school level), medium (senior high and vocational school level) or high (university level or higher).
Cutoffs:WHO

Overweight/obesity by age

Adults, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:6602
Area covered:National
References:Huang, Q., Wang, L., Jiang, H., Wang, H., Zhang, B., Zhang, J., Jia, X. and Wang, Z., 2020. Intra-Individual Double Burden of Malnutrition among Adults in China: Evidence from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2015. Nutrients, 12(9), p.2811.
Notes:3699 men and 2903 women
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:16,161,982
Area covered:National
References:He Y, Pan A, Wang Y, Yang Y, Xu J, Zhang Y, Liu D, Wang Q, Shen H, Zhang Y, Yan D, Peng Z, Hu FB & Ma X.2017. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in 15.8 million men aged 15–49 years in rural China from 2010 to 2014. Scientific Reports. 7(5012). DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-04135-4.
Notes:OVERWEIGHT WAS DEFINED AS BMI≥24.0kg/m2 AND OBESITY AS BMI≥28.0kg/m2 according to chinese criteria
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:16,161,982
Area covered:National
References:He Y, Pan A, Wang Y, Yang Y, Xu J, Zhang Y, Liu D, Wang Q, Shen H, Zhang Y, Yan D, Peng Z, Hu FB & Ma X.2017. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in 15.8 million men aged 15–49 years in rural China from 2010 to 2014. Scientific Reports. 7(5012). DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-04135-4.
Notes:OVERWEIGHT WAS DEFINED AS BMI≥24.0kg/m2 AND OBESITY AS BMI≥28.0kg/m2 according to chinese criteria
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:16,161,982
Area covered:National
References:He Y, Pan A, Wang Y, Yang Y, Xu J, Zhang Y, Liu D, Wang Q, Shen H, Zhang Y, Yan D, Peng Z, Hu FB & Ma X.2017. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in 15.8 million men aged 15–49 years in rural China from 2010 to 2014. Scientific Reports. 7(5012). DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-04135-4.
Notes:OVERWEIGHT WAS DEFINED AS BMI≥24.0kg/m2 AND OBESITY AS BMI≥28.0kg/m2 according to chinese criteria
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2011

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:6651
Area covered:Beijing
References:Cai L, Han X, Qi Z, Li Z, Zhang Y, Wang P, et al. (2014) Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Weight Loss Practice among Beijing Adults, 2011. PLoS ONE 9(9): e98744. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098744
Notes:The Chinese BMI classifications: underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (BMI 18.5–23.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 24–27.9 kg/m2), and obesity (BMI≥28 kg/m2).
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2007-2010

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:13157
Area covered:National
References:Wu F, Guo Y, Chatterji S, et al. Common risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases among older adults in China, Ghana, Mexico, India, Russia and South Africa: the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) wave 1. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:88. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1407-0.
Notes:Prevalence of obesity for 50+ age group. Obesity is defined as BMI >27.5 kg/m2
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:1617
Area covered:National
References:Zhang J, Wang H, Wang Z, Du W, Su C, Zhang J, Jiang H, Jia X, Huang F, Ouyang Y, Wang Y, Zhang B.Prevalence and stabilizing trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in China, 2011-2015. BMC Public Health. 2018 May 2;18(1):571. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5483-9.
Notes:International Cut off used, WHO & WGOC also available
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:29,418
Area covered:National
References:Zhou, Y. et al. (2017) 'Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents from 2015', Annals of Human Biology, 44 (7). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2017.1371224
Notes:Subjects were defined as being overweight (BMI P85 and <P95) or obese (BMI P95) by referring to the Body Mass Index Reference Norm for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Children and Adolescents.
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:215203
Area covered:National
References:Sun H, Ma Y, Han D, Pan C-W, Xu Y. Prevalence and Trends in Obesity among China’s Children and Adolescents, 1985–2010. Gonzalez-Bulnes A, ed. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(8):e105469. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105469.
Notes:A subject was considered obese or overweight if weight-for-height exceeded the 20% or 10% of standard weight-for-height. The standard weight-for-height was the 80th percentile for sex- and age-specific growth charts.
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2002

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:70508
Area covered:National
References:Li Y, Schouten EG, Hu X, Cui Z, Luan D, Ma G. Obesity prevalence and time trend among youngsters in China, 1982-2002. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(1):131-137.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1992

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:70508
Area covered:National
References:Li Y, Schouten EG, Hu X, Cui Z, Luan D, Ma G. Obesity prevalence and time trend among youngsters in China, 1982-2002. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(1):131-137.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1982

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:70508
Area covered:National
References:Li Y, Schouten EG, Hu X, Cui Z, Luan D, Ma G. Obesity prevalence and time trend among youngsters in China, 1982-2002. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(1):131-137.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by region

Men, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2007-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:50+
Sample size:13157
Area covered:National
References:Wu F, Guo Y, Chatterji S, et al. Common risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases among older adults in China, Ghana, Mexico, India, Russia and South Africa: the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) wave 1. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:88. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1407-0.
Notes:Prevalence of obesity for 50+ age group. Obesity is defined as BMI >27.5 kg/m2
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 1997

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 1997

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 1993

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 1993

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
Sample size:1617
Area covered:National
References:Zhang J, Wang H, Wang Z, Du W, Su C, Zhang J, Jiang H, Jia X, Huang F, Ouyang Y, Wang Y, Zhang B.Prevalence and stabilizing trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in China, 2011-2015. BMC Public Health. 2018 May 2;18(1):571. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5483-9.
Notes:International Cut off used, WHO & WGOC also available
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:13-17
Sample size:29,418
Area covered:National
References:Zhou, Y. et al. (2017) 'Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents from 2015', Annals of Human Biology, 44 (7). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2017.1371224
Notes:Subjects were defined as being overweight (BMI P85 and <P95) or obese (BMI P95) by referring to the Body Mass Index Reference Norm for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Children and Adolescents.
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-12
Sample size:29,418
Area covered:National
References:Zhou, Y. et al. (2017) 'Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents from 2015', Annals of Human Biology, 44 (7). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2017.1371224
Notes:Subjects were defined as being overweight (BMI P85 and <P95) or obese (BMI P95) by referring to the Body Mass Index Reference Norm for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Children and Adolescents. 2015 Regional data also available for: Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Xi'an (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29212483 ;Zhao et al. 2017)
Cutoffs:Other

Boys, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
Sample size:4847
Area covered:Shandong Province (Rural)
References:Zhang YX, Wang ZX, Zhao JS, Chu ZH. Trends in overweight and obesity among rural children and adolescents from 1985 to 2014 in Shandong, China. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 Apr 26. pii: 204748731664383
Notes:Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Rural China. IOTF BMI Cut-off points used.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
Sample size:4847
Area covered:Shandong Province (Rural)
References:Zhang YX, Wang ZX, Zhao JS, Chu ZH. Trends in overweight and obesity among rural children and adolescents from 1985 to 2014 in Shandong, China. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 Apr 26. pii: 204748731664383
Notes:Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Rural China. IOTF BMI Cut-off points used.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
Sample size:215203
Area covered:National
References:Sun H, Ma Y, Han D, Pan C-W, Xu Y. Prevalence and Trends in Obesity among China’s Children and Adolescents, 1985–2010. Gonzalez-Bulnes A, ed. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(8):e105469. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105469.
Notes:A subject was considered obese or overweight if weight-for-height exceeded the 20% or 10% of standard weight-for-height. The standard weight-for-height was the 80th percentile for sex- and age-specific growth charts.
Cutoffs:Other

Girls, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
Sample size:215203
Area covered:National
References:Sun H, Ma Y, Han D, Pan C-W, Xu Y. Prevalence and Trends in Obesity among China’s Children and Adolescents, 1985–2010. Gonzalez-Bulnes A, ed. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(8):e105469. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105469.
Notes:A subject was considered obese or overweight if weight-for-height exceeded the 20% or 10% of standard weight-for-height. The standard weight-for-height was the 80th percentile for sex- and age-specific growth charts.
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 1993

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-9
Sample size:Total sample size (6-18yrs old) = 3028
Area covered:The China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS) covered eight provinces that vary substantially in geography, economic development, public resources, and health indicators.
References:Youfa Wang.Cross-national comparison of childhood obesity: the epidemic and the relationship between obesity and socioeconomic status. Int. J. Epidemiol. (2001) 30 (5): 1129-1136. doi: 10.1093/ije/30.5.1129
Notes:The study used the US NCHS body mass index (BMI = wt/ht2) reference to define obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) and overweight (85th≤BMI<95th percentile).
Cutoffs:Other

Overweight/obesity by age and region

Boys, 2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:18
Sample size:30447
Area covered:Regional
References:Zhang YX, Wang SR. Distribution of body mass index and the prevalence changes of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Shandong, China from 1985 to 2005. Annals of Human Biology, Volume 35, Issue 5 September 2008 , pages 547 - 555
Cutoffs:Other

Girls, 2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:18
Sample size:30447
Area covered:Regional
References:Zhang YX, Wang SR. Distribution of body mass index and the prevalence changes of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Shandong, China from 1985 to 2005. Annals of Human Biology, Volume 35, Issue 5 September 2008 , pages 547 - 555
Cutoffs:Other

Boys, 1995

Survey type:Measured
Age:18
Sample size:30447
Area covered:Regional
References:Zhang YX, Wang SR. Distribution of body mass index and the prevalence changes of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Shandong, China from 1985 to 2005. Annals of Human Biology, Volume 35, Issue 5 September 2008 , pages 547 - 555
Cutoffs:Other

Girls, 1995

Survey type:Measured
Age:18
Sample size:30447
Area covered:Regional
References:Zhang YX, Wang SR. Distribution of body mass index and the prevalence changes of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Shandong, China from 1985 to 2005. Annals of Human Biology, Volume 35, Issue 5 September 2008 , pages 547 - 555
Cutoffs:Other

Boys, 1985

Survey type:Measured
Age:18
Sample size:30447
Area covered:Regional
References:Zhang YX, Wang SR. Distribution of body mass index and the prevalence changes of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Shandong, China from 1985 to 2005. Annals of Human Biology, Volume 35, Issue 5 September 2008 , pages 547 - 555
Cutoffs:Other

Girls, 1985

Survey type:Measured
Age:18
Sample size:30447
Area covered:Regional
References:Zhang YX, Wang SR. Distribution of body mass index and the prevalence changes of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Shandong, China from 1985 to 2005. Annals of Human Biology, Volume 35, Issue 5 September 2008 , pages 547 - 555
Cutoffs:Other

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Adults, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:18-59
Sample size:6602
Area covered:National
References:Huang, Q., Wang, L., Jiang, H., Wang, H., Zhang, B., Zhang, J., Jia, X. and Wang, Z., 2020. Intra-Individual Double Burden of Malnutrition among Adults in China: Evidence from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2015. Nutrients, 12(9), p.2811.
Notes:3699 men and 2903 women
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2007-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:50+
Sample size:13157
Area covered:National
References:Wu F, Guo Y, Chatterji S, et al. Common risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases among older adults in China, Ghana, Mexico, India, Russia and South Africa: the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) wave 1. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:88. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1407-0.
Notes:Prevalence of obesity for 50+ age group by income quintile. Lowest (quintile 1) is the quintile with the poorest households and Highest (quintile 5) the quintile with the richest households. Obesity is defined as BMI >27.5 kg/m2 .
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-12
Sample size:9917
Area covered:Regional - Guangzhou (urban setting)
References:Liu W, Liu W, Lin R, et al. Socioeconomic determinants of childhood obesity among primary school children in Guangzhou, China. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:482. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3171-1.
Notes:BMI standard deviation scores (BMI z-score) were derived using the age (calculated by subtracting the date of birth from the date of examination) and sex specific WHO growth reference for school-aged children, which were further classified as non-overweight (≤1SD), overweight (>1SD) and obese (>2SD). Overweight and obesity prevalence by Father's education. Education was categorised into low (primary and junior high school level), medium (senior high and vocational school level) or high (university level or higher).
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-17
Sample size:1566
Area covered:National
References:CHNS 2004 data in: T Dearth-Wesley, H Wang and BM Popkin. Under- and overnutrition dynamics in Chinese children and adults (1991–2004)European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2008) 62, 1302–1307
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 1993

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-9
Sample size:Total sample size (6-18yrs old) = 3028
Area covered:The China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS) covered eight provinces that vary substantially in geography, economic development, public resources, and health indicators.
References:Youfa Wang.Cross-national comparison of childhood obesity: the epidemic and the relationship between obesity and socioeconomic status. Int. J. Epidemiol. (2001) 30 (5): 1129-1136. doi: 10.1093/ije/30.5.1129
Notes:The study used the US NCHS body mass index (BMI = wt/ht2) reference to define obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) and overweight (85th≤BMI<95th percentile).
Cutoffs:Other

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Estimated per-capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per-capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Breast cancer

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, breast, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, cervix uteri, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

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