• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Economic impact
  • Policies
  • Contextual factors
Loading data – please wait …

Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:18-59
Sample size:6602
Area covered:National
References:Huang, Q., Wang, L., Jiang, H., Wang, H., Zhang, B., Zhang, J., Jia, X. and Wang, Z., 2020. Intra-Individual Double Burden of Malnutrition among Adults in China: Evidence from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2015. Nutrients, 12(9), p.2811.
Notes:3699 men and 2903 women
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:8315
Area covered:National
References:Yan, S., Li, J., Li, S., Zhang, B., Du, S., Gordon-Larsen, P., Adair, L. and Popkin, B. (2012), The expanding burden of cardiometabolic risk in China: the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Obesity Reviews. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01016.x
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2007-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:45956
Area covered:National
References:Li, Y., Teng, D., Shi, X., Teng, X., Teng, W., Shan, Z., Lai, Y. and China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study Group, 2021. Changes in the prevalence of obesity and hypertension and demographic risk factor profiles in China over 10 years: two national cross-sectional surveys. The Lancet Regional Health-Western Pacific, 15, p.100227.
Definitions:According to the Asian-specific cut-off points, overweight was defined as a BMI from 23 kg/m2 to less than 25 kg/m2, and general obesity was defined as a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater for both men and women.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2002

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:221044
Area covered:National
References:Report of the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. 2004. (In Chinese). Chinese Ministry of Public Health (CMPH).
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1997

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1993

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1991-1995

Survey type:Measured
Age:35-59
Sample size:9213
References:Zhou BF, Wu Yangfeng, Yang Jun, Li Ying, Zhang H, Zhao L. Overweight is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in Chinese populations. Obesity Reviews 2002;3:147-156
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1989

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-45
Sample size:2487
References:Bell AC, Ge K, Popkin BM. Weight gain and its predictors in Chinese adults. International Journal of Obesity 2;25:1079-1086001
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
Sample size:1617
Area covered:National
References:Zhang J, Wang H, Wang Z, Du W, Su C, Zhang J, Jiang H, Jia X, Huang F, Ouyang Y, Wang Y, Zhang B.Prevalence and stabilizing trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in China, 2011-2015. BMC Public Health. 2018 May 2;18(1):571. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5483-9.
Notes:IOTF Internation Cut off. WHO & WGOC also available
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:29418
Area covered:National
References:Yunping Zhou, Qian Zhang, Tao Wang, Yanqing Zhang & Bo Xu. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents from 2015. Annals of Human Biology 2017;44:642-643 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03014460.2017.1371224
Notes:85th/95th Centiles Based on Chinese Reference Data see original article for details
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2014-2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-14
Sample size:325,083
Area covered:Regional
References:Zhang et al. 2018. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school-aged children in Jiangsu Province, China, 2014-2017.PLoS One. 2018; 13(8): e0202681.
Notes:Subnational (Jiangsu Province) Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) BMI definition used
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2011

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
References:Zhang, J., Wang, H., Wang, Z. et al. Prevalence and stabilizing trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in China, 2011-2015. BMC Public Health 18, 571 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5483-9
Notes:Overweight and obesity defined using WGOC Criteria
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-9
Sample size:215,203
Area covered:National
References:Sun H, Ma Y, Han D, Pan C-W, Xu Y. Prevalence and Trends in Obesity among China’s Children and Adolescents, 1985–2010. Gonzalez-Bulnes A, ed. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(8):e105469. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105469.
Notes:Sample size for all children for all ages 7-18 A subject was considered obese or overweight if weight-for-height exceeded the 20% or 10% of standard weight-for-height. The standard weight-for-height was the 80th percentile for sex- and age-specific growth charts.
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-12
Sample size:1368
Area covered:National
References:Liang YJ, Xi B, Song AQ, Liu JX, Mi J. Trends in general and abdominal obesity. Pediatric Obesity 2012 Vol 7 (5):355-64
Notes:Overweight includes obesity. Data for overweight and obesity were not available separately. IOTF Cut off's used.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2002

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-17
Sample size:44880
Area covered:National
References:Yanping L, Evert GS, Xiaoqi H, Zhaohui C, Dechun L and Guansheng M. 2008. Obesity prevalence and time trend among youngsters in china, 1982 - 2002. Asia Pac Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 17(1):131 - 137.
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1999-2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:11
Area covered:National
References:Bellizzi MC, Horgan GW, Guillaume M, Dietz WH. Prevalence of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity in Asian and European countries. In: Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence. Editors: Chunming Chen, William H. Dietz. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series Pediatric Program. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2002
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1992

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-17
Sample size:15501
References:Li Y,, Schouten EG, Hu X et al. Obesity prevalence and time trend among youngsters in China, 1982-2002. Published in Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Our version from Book - Li Y. Childhood Obesity in China: prevalence, determinants and health. Chapter 2
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1982

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-17
Sample size:10127
Area covered:National
References:Li Y,, Schouten EG, Hu X et al. Obesity prevalence and time trend among youngsters in China, 1982-2002. Published in Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Our version from Book - Li Y. Childhood Obesity in China: prevalence, determinants and health.
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by education

Adults, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:18-59
Sample size:6602
Area covered:National
References:Huang, Q., Wang, L., Jiang, H., Wang, H., Zhang, B., Zhang, J., Jia, X. and Wang, Z., 2020. Intra-Individual Double Burden of Malnutrition among Adults in China: Evidence from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2015. Nutrients, 12(9), p.2811.
Notes:3699 men and 2903 women
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-12
Sample size:9917
Area covered:Regional - Guangzhou (urban setting)
References:Liu W, Liu W, Lin R, et al. Socioeconomic determinants of childhood obesity among primary school children in Guangzhou, China. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:482. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3171-1.
Notes:BMI standard deviation scores (BMI z-score) were derived using the age (calculated by subtracting the date of birth from the date of examination) and sex specific WHO growth reference for school-aged children, which were further classified as non-overweight (≤1SD), overweight (>1SD) and obese (>2SD). Overweight and obesity prevalence by Father's education. Education was categorised into low (primary and junior high school level), medium (senior high and vocational school level) or high (university level or higher).
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-12
Sample size:9917
Area covered:Regional - Guangzhou (urban setting)
References:Liu W, Liu W, Lin R, et al. Socioeconomic determinants of childhood obesity among primary school children in Guangzhou, China. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:482. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3171-1.
Notes:BMI standard deviation scores (BMI z-score) were derived using the age (calculated by subtracting the date of birth from the date of examination) and sex specific WHO growth reference for school-aged children, which were further classified as non-overweight (≤1SD), overweight (>1SD) and obese (>2SD). Overweight and obesity prevalence by Father's education. Education was categorised into low (primary and junior high school level), medium (senior high and vocational school level) or high (university level or higher).
Cutoffs:WHO

Overweight/obesity by age

Adults, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:6602
Area covered:National
References:Huang, Q., Wang, L., Jiang, H., Wang, H., Zhang, B., Zhang, J., Jia, X. and Wang, Z., 2020. Intra-Individual Double Burden of Malnutrition among Adults in China: Evidence from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2015. Nutrients, 12(9), p.2811.
Notes:3699 men and 2903 women
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2015-2017

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:72824
Area covered:National
References:Li, Y., Teng, D., Shi, X., Teng, X., Teng, W., Shan, Z., Lai, Y. and China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study Group, 2021. Changes in the prevalence of obesity and hypertension and demographic risk factor profiles in China over 10 years: two national cross-sectional surveys. The Lancet Regional Health-Western Pacific, 15, p.100227.
Definitions:According to the Asian-specific cut-off points, overweight was defined as a BMI from 23 kg/m2 to less than 25 kg/m2, and general obesity was defined as a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater for both men and women.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2007-2008

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:45956
Area covered:National
References:Li, Y., Teng, D., Shi, X., Teng, X., Teng, W., Shan, Z., Lai, Y. and China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study Group, 2021. Changes in the prevalence of obesity and hypertension and demographic risk factor profiles in China over 10 years: two national cross-sectional surveys. The Lancet Regional Health-Western Pacific, 15, p.100227.
Definitions:According to the Asian-specific cut-off points, overweight was defined as a BMI from 23 kg/m2 to less than 25 kg/m2, and general obesity was defined as a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater for both men and women.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:1617
Area covered:National
References:Zhang J, Wang H, Wang Z, Du W, Su C, Zhang J, Jiang H, Jia X, Huang F, Ouyang Y, Wang Y, Zhang B.Prevalence and stabilizing trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in China, 2011-2015. BMC Public Health. 2018 May 2;18(1):571. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5483-9.
Notes:International Cut off used, WHO & WGOC also available
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:29,418
Area covered:National
References:Zhou, Y. et al. (2017) 'Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents from 2015', Annals of Human Biology, 44 (7). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2017.1371224
Notes:Subjects were defined as being overweight (BMI P85 and <P95) or obese (BMI P95) by referring to the Body Mass Index Reference Norm for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Children and Adolescents.
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:215203
Area covered:National
References:Sun H, Ma Y, Han D, Pan C-W, Xu Y. Prevalence and Trends in Obesity among China’s Children and Adolescents, 1985–2010. Gonzalez-Bulnes A, ed. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(8):e105469. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105469.
Notes:A subject was considered obese or overweight if weight-for-height exceeded the 20% or 10% of standard weight-for-height. The standard weight-for-height was the 80th percentile for sex- and age-specific growth charts.
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2002

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:70508
Area covered:National
References:Li Y, Schouten EG, Hu X, Cui Z, Luan D, Ma G. Obesity prevalence and time trend among youngsters in China, 1982-2002. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(1):131-137.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1992

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:70508
Area covered:National
References:Li Y, Schouten EG, Hu X, Cui Z, Luan D, Ma G. Obesity prevalence and time trend among youngsters in China, 1982-2002. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(1):131-137.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1982

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:70508
Area covered:National
References:Li Y, Schouten EG, Hu X, Cui Z, Luan D, Ma G. Obesity prevalence and time trend among youngsters in China, 1982-2002. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(1):131-137.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by region

Adults, 2015-2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:72824
Area covered:National
References:Li, Y., Teng, D., Shi, X., Teng, X., Teng, W., Shan, Z., Lai, Y. and China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study Group, 2021. Changes in the prevalence of obesity and hypertension and demographic risk factor profiles in China over 10 years: two national cross-sectional surveys. The Lancet Regional Health-Western Pacific, 15, p.100227.
Definitions:According to the Asian-specific cut-off points, overweight was defined as a BMI from 23 kg/m2 to less than 25 kg/m2, and general obesity was defined as a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater for both men and women.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2007-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:45956
Area covered:National
References:Li, Y., Teng, D., Shi, X., Teng, X., Teng, W., Shan, Z., Lai, Y. and China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study Group, 2021. Changes in the prevalence of obesity and hypertension and demographic risk factor profiles in China over 10 years: two national cross-sectional surveys. The Lancet Regional Health-Western Pacific, 15, p.100227.
Definitions:According to the Asian-specific cut-off points, overweight was defined as a BMI from 23 kg/m2 to less than 25 kg/m2, and general obesity was defined as a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater for both men and women.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 1997

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 1997

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 1993

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 1993

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
References:Xi, B., Liang, Y., He, T., Reilly, K. H., Hu, Y., Wang, Q., Yan, Y. and Mi, J. (2012), Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obesity Reviews, 13: 287–296. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00944.x
Notes:Obesity classified as BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m²
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
Sample size:1617
Area covered:National
References:Zhang J, Wang H, Wang Z, Du W, Su C, Zhang J, Jiang H, Jia X, Huang F, Ouyang Y, Wang Y, Zhang B.Prevalence and stabilizing trends in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in China, 2011-2015. BMC Public Health. 2018 May 2;18(1):571. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5483-9.
Notes:International Cut off used, WHO & WGOC also available
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:13-17
Sample size:29,418
Area covered:National
References:Zhou, Y. et al. (2017) 'Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents from 2015', Annals of Human Biology, 44 (7). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2017.1371224
Notes:Subjects were defined as being overweight (BMI P85 and <P95) or obese (BMI P95) by referring to the Body Mass Index Reference Norm for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Children and Adolescents.
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-12
Sample size:29,418
Area covered:National
References:Zhou, Y. et al. (2017) 'Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents from 2015', Annals of Human Biology, 44 (7). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2017.1371224
Notes:Subjects were defined as being overweight (BMI P85 and <P95) or obese (BMI P95) by referring to the Body Mass Index Reference Norm for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Children and Adolescents. 2015 Regional data also available for: Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Xi'an (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29212483 ;Zhao et al. 2017)
Cutoffs:Other

Boys, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
Sample size:4847
Area covered:Shandong Province (Rural)
References:Zhang YX, Wang ZX, Zhao JS, Chu ZH. Trends in overweight and obesity among rural children and adolescents from 1985 to 2014 in Shandong, China. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 Apr 26. pii: 204748731664383
Notes:Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Rural China. IOTF BMI Cut-off points used.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
Sample size:4847
Area covered:Shandong Province (Rural)
References:Zhang YX, Wang ZX, Zhao JS, Chu ZH. Trends in overweight and obesity among rural children and adolescents from 1985 to 2014 in Shandong, China. Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2016 Apr 26. pii: 204748731664383
Notes:Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Rural China. IOTF BMI Cut-off points used.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
Sample size:215203
Area covered:National
References:Sun H, Ma Y, Han D, Pan C-W, Xu Y. Prevalence and Trends in Obesity among China’s Children and Adolescents, 1985–2010. Gonzalez-Bulnes A, ed. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(8):e105469. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105469.
Notes:A subject was considered obese or overweight if weight-for-height exceeded the 20% or 10% of standard weight-for-height. The standard weight-for-height was the 80th percentile for sex- and age-specific growth charts.
Cutoffs:Other

Girls, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
Sample size:215203
Area covered:National
References:Sun H, Ma Y, Han D, Pan C-W, Xu Y. Prevalence and Trends in Obesity among China’s Children and Adolescents, 1985–2010. Gonzalez-Bulnes A, ed. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(8):e105469. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105469.
Notes:A subject was considered obese or overweight if weight-for-height exceeded the 20% or 10% of standard weight-for-height. The standard weight-for-height was the 80th percentile for sex- and age-specific growth charts.
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 1993

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-9
Sample size:Total sample size (6-18yrs old) = 3028
Area covered:The China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS) covered eight provinces that vary substantially in geography, economic development, public resources, and health indicators.
References:Youfa Wang.Cross-national comparison of childhood obesity: the epidemic and the relationship between obesity and socioeconomic status. Int. J. Epidemiol. (2001) 30 (5): 1129-1136. doi: 10.1093/ije/30.5.1129
Notes:The study used the US NCHS body mass index (BMI = wt/ht2) reference to define obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) and overweight (85th≤BMI<95th percentile).
Cutoffs:Other

Overweight/obesity by age and region

Men, 2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:18
Sample size:30447
Area covered:Regional
References:Zhang YX, Wang SR. Distribution of body mass index and the prevalence changes of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Shandong, China from 1985 to 2005. Annals of Human Biology, Volume 35, Issue 5 September 2008 , pages 547 - 555
Cutoffs:Other
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:18
Sample size:30447
Area covered:Regional
References:Zhang YX, Wang SR. Distribution of body mass index and the prevalence changes of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Shandong, China from 1985 to 2005. Annals of Human Biology, Volume 35, Issue 5 September 2008 , pages 547 - 555
Cutoffs:Other
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 1995

Survey type:Measured
Age:18
Sample size:30447
Area covered:Regional
References:Zhang YX, Wang SR. Distribution of body mass index and the prevalence changes of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Shandong, China from 1985 to 2005. Annals of Human Biology, Volume 35, Issue 5 September 2008 , pages 547 - 555
Cutoffs:Other
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 1995

Survey type:Measured
Age:18
Sample size:30447
Area covered:Regional
References:Zhang YX, Wang SR. Distribution of body mass index and the prevalence changes of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Shandong, China from 1985 to 2005. Annals of Human Biology, Volume 35, Issue 5 September 2008 , pages 547 - 555
Cutoffs:Other
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 1985

Survey type:Measured
Age:18
Sample size:30447
Area covered:Regional
References:Zhang YX, Wang SR. Distribution of body mass index and the prevalence changes of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Shandong, China from 1985 to 2005. Annals of Human Biology, Volume 35, Issue 5 September 2008 , pages 547 - 555
Cutoffs:Other
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 1985

Survey type:Measured
Age:18
Sample size:30447
Area covered:Regional
References:Zhang YX, Wang SR. Distribution of body mass index and the prevalence changes of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Shandong, China from 1985 to 2005. Annals of Human Biology, Volume 35, Issue 5 September 2008 , pages 547 - 555
Cutoffs:Other
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Adults, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:18-59
Sample size:6602
Area covered:National
References:Huang, Q., Wang, L., Jiang, H., Wang, H., Zhang, B., Zhang, J., Jia, X. and Wang, Z., 2020. Intra-Individual Double Burden of Malnutrition among Adults in China: Evidence from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2015. Nutrients, 12(9), p.2811.
Notes:3699 men and 2903 women
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-12
Sample size:9917
Area covered:Regional - Guangzhou (urban setting)
References:Liu W, Liu W, Lin R, et al. Socioeconomic determinants of childhood obesity among primary school children in Guangzhou, China. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:482. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3171-1.
Notes:BMI standard deviation scores (BMI z-score) were derived using the age (calculated by subtracting the date of birth from the date of examination) and sex specific WHO growth reference for school-aged children, which were further classified as non-overweight (≤1SD), overweight (>1SD) and obese (>2SD). Overweight and obesity prevalence by Father's education. Education was categorised into low (primary and junior high school level), medium (senior high and vocational school level) or high (university level or higher).
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-17
Sample size:1566
Area covered:National
References:CHNS 2004 data in: T Dearth-Wesley, H Wang and BM Popkin. Under- and overnutrition dynamics in Chinese children and adults (1991–2004)European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2008) 62, 1302–1307
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 1993

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-9
Sample size:Total sample size (6-18yrs old) = 3028
Area covered:The China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS) covered eight provinces that vary substantially in geography, economic development, public resources, and health indicators.
References:Youfa Wang.Cross-national comparison of childhood obesity: the epidemic and the relationship between obesity and socioeconomic status. Int. J. Epidemiol. (2001) 30 (5): 1129-1136. doi: 10.1093/ije/30.5.1129
Notes:The study used the US NCHS body mass index (BMI = wt/ht2) reference to define obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) and overweight (85th≤BMI<95th percentile).
Cutoffs:Other

Overweight/obesity by ethnicity

Ethnic groups are as defined by publication of origin and are not as defined by WOF. In some instances ethnicity is conflated with nationality and/or race.

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-18
Sample size:80,821
Area covered:National
References:Dong, Yanhui, et al. “Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Underweight among 26 Chinese Ethnic Minority Children and Adolescents in 2014: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study.” BMC Public Health, vol. 18, no. 1, 27 Apr. 2018, 10.1186/s12889-018-5352-6.
Notes:Data from Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health 2014
Cutoffs:Overweight and obesity was defined as ≥ the referent age-and sex- specific 85th centile according to the reference developed by Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC)

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Estimated per capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

% Infants exclusively breastfed 0-5 months

Children, 2004-2020

Area covered:National
References:China National Nutrition and Health Survey, 2013
Notes:See UNICEF website for further survey information. Available at : https://data.unicef.org/resources/dataset/infant-young-child-feeding/ (last accessed 28.9.21) Citation: United Nations Children’s Fund, Division of Data, Analysis, Planning and Monitoring (2021). Global UNICEF Global Databases: Infant and Young Child Feeding: Exclusive breastfeeding, New York, September 2021.
Definitions:% exclusively breastfed 0-5 months

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2089
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Women, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2089
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Breast cancer

Women, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2089
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2089
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Women, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2089
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2089
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Women, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2089
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2089
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Women, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2089
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2089
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Women, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2089
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2089
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2021

Age:20-79
Area covered:National
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation.  IDF Diabetes Atlas, 10th edn. Brussels, Belgium:International Diabetes Federation, 2021. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Age-adjusted comparative prevalence of diabetes, %

Adults, 2019

Age:20-79
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th edn. Brussels,Belgium: 2019. Available at: https://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Economic impact of overweight and obesity

Country comparisons

You can choose to compare this country’s data with the data for up to four other countries.

Policies, Interventions and Actions

Voluntary front-of-pack labelling

China introduced the FOP nutrition labeling concept in the revised standard for nutrition labeling, GB28050-xxxx. It encourages the industry to provide supplemental nutrition information on the front panel of the package to facilitate consumer understanding. It also offers flexibility for companies to properly design FOP nutrition labeling to help guide the consumers to achieve a balanced diet and reduce the consumption of fat, sugar, and salt.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2020 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children

Voluntary front-of-pack labelling

China introduced the FOP nutrition labeling concept in the revised standard for nutrition labeling, GB28050-xxxx. It encourages the industry to provide supplemental nutrition information on the front panel of the package to facilitate consumer understanding. It also offers flexibility for companies to properly design FOP nutrition labeling to help guide the consumers to achieve a balanced diet and reduce the consumption of fat, sugar, and salt.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2020 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
References:https://myemail.constantcontact.com/China-Revamps-Food-Nutrition-Labeling-Regulations.html?soid=1116651795207&aid=P2KmSjqyazM

National nutrition plan 2017-2030

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2017-2030
Target age group:Adults and children
Linked document:Download linked document
References:https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/24710

National nutrition plan 2017-2030

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2017-2030
Target age group:Adults and children
Linked document:Download linked document
References:https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/24710

Healthy China 2030

A national strategic plan aiming to promote healthy lifestyles, improve health services and the health industry, and build a sustainable health system to provide essential health services to every citizen by 2020 and reach the main health indicators of high income countries by 2030

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2016-2030
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Central Committee of the Communist Party and the State Council,
Find out more:www.who.int
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Tan X, Liu X, and Shao H. Healthy China 2030: A Vision for Health Care. VALUE IN HEALTH REGIONAL ISSUES 12C (2017) 112 – 114.

China’s National Program for Food and Nutrition (2014-2020)

To improve and balance the nutrient intake from food and further to control obesity in China. The program focuses on effectively securing food supplies, optimizing the food structure and improving the nutritional status of all Chinese.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2014-2020
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government of China
Find out more:www.gov.cn
Linked document:Download linked document
References:China’s National Program for Food and Nutrition (2014-2020) [Internet]. www.chinadaily.com.cn. [cited 2020 Jul 22]. Available from: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/m/chinahealth/2014-05/16/content_17514060.htm

YOG- Obesity study; community based physical activity intervention

An RCT providing additional 1-year tailored multi-component physical activity program to children in 4th and 7th grade of school, including classroom curricula, school environment support, family involvement and fun programs/events. This aimed to prevent childhood obesity in Nanjing. The intervention was found to be feasible and effective in promoting physical activity and preventing obesity among the general student population in a large city in China

Categories:Non-national obesity strategies
Year(s):2014 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Wang et al.
Find out more:www.nature.com
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Wang et al. Childhood obesity prevention through a community-based cluster randomized controlled physical activity intervention among schools in china: the health legacy project of the 2nd world summer youth olympic Games (YOG-Obesity study). International Journal of Obesity (2018) 42, pp. 625–633.

China National Program for Child Development (2011-2020)

The aim of this policy is to develop Chinese children' growth in various aspects and to control childhood obesity and overweight.

Categories (partial):Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action plan
Year(s):2011-2020
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Government of China
Find out more:www.gov.cn
Linked document:Download linked document
References:China National Program for Child Development (2011-2020) - All China Women’s Federation [Internet]. www.womenofchina.cn. [cited 2020i Jul 22]. Available from: http://www.womenofchina.cn/womenofchina/html1/Sources/1502/997-1.htm

Sunshine Sports program

The policy of one hour of physical activity (PA) in schools every day aims to improve the intensity of physical activity and control childhood and adolescent obesity.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Department of Education
Find out more:en.olympic.cn
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Fuzhou promotes youth sports at campus - Official Website of the Chinese Olympic Committee [Internet]. en.olympic.cn. [cited 2020o Jul 22]. Available from: http://en.olympic.cn/photo/2015-10-22/2355162.html

The twelfth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development

To improve life expectancy, prevent obesity and related chronic disease and popularize health education. Healthy lifestyle initiatives began in 2012 and will cover more than 50 percent of Chinese communities by 2015 with the goal of reducing the prevalence of obesity to less than 12% in adults and less than 8% in children by 2015.

Categories (partial):Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action plan
Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2011-2015
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:State council
Find out more:policy.asiapacificenergy.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015) for National Economic and Social Development | ESCAP Policy Documents Managment [Internet]. policy.asiapacificenergy.org. [cited 2020a Jul 22]. Available from: https://policy.asiapacificenergy.org/node/37

Chinese Adults Physical Activity Guidelines

Through improving the level of physical activity to control and prevent obesity and related chronic diseases in Chinese adults.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:People's Republic of China Ministry of Health, Bureau of Disease Control and Prevention
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Muntner P, Gu D, Wildman RP, Chen J, Qan W, Whelton PK, et al. Prevalence of Physical Activity Among Chinese Adults: Results From the International Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular Disease in Asia. American Journal of Public Health [Internet]. 2005 Sep 1 [cited 2020 Jul 22];95(9):1631–1636. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1449408/

Guideline on Snacks for Chinese Children and Adolescents

Improve dietary issues amongst Chinese children and adolescents resulting in controlling childhood obesity and adolescent obesity

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2008 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:People's Republic of China Ministry of Health, Bureau of Disease Control and Prevention
Find out more:pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Yu D, Zhang B, Zhao L, Wang H. [Snacks consumption in Chinese children and adolescents at the ages of 3-17 years]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu = Journal of Hygiene Research [Internet]. 2008 Nov 1 [cited 2020 Jul 22];37(6):710–713. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19239008/

The Chinese dietary guidelines

To use the best available scientific evidence to provide information on the types and amounts of foods, food groups and dietary patterns that aim to: promote health and wellbeing; reduce the risk of diet-related conditions and reduce the risk of chronic disease.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2007 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Chinese Nutrition Society
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Wang S, Lay S, Yu H, Shen S. Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016): comments and comparisons. Journal of Zhejiang University-SCIENCE B. 2016 Sep;17(9):649–56. ‌

The guidelines for prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Chinese adults

Guidelines to prevent and control overweight and obesity in Chinese adults.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2004 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Biomed Environ Sci /Chen C, Lu FC and Department of Disease Control Ministry of Health, PR China.
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Chen C, Lu FC, Department of Disease Control Ministry of Health, PR China. The guidelines for prevention and control of overweight and obesity in Chinese adults. Biomedical and environmental sciences: BES [Internet]. 2004 [cited 2020 Jul 22];17 Suppl:1–36. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15807475/‌

National Plan of Action for Nutrition

Ensuring food supply and implementation of appropriate interventions to alleviate hunger and food shortage, reduce the incidence of energy-protein malnutrition, prevent, control and eliminate micronutrient deficiencies. Through proper guidance to food consumption behaviour, improvement of dietary patterns and promotion of healthy life style, this policy aims to improve the general nutrition status of the people and prevent nutrition-related chronic disease.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):1997 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:The Ministry of Health
Find out more:extranet.who.int
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en

GNPR 2016-17 (q7) Breastfeeeding promotion and/or counselling

WHO Global Nutrition Policy Review 2016-2017 reported the evidence of breastfeeding promotion and/or counselling (q7)

Categories:Evidence of Breastfeeding promotion or related activity
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Ministry of Health (information provided by the GINA progam)
Find out more:extranet.who.int
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en

Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes: National Implementation of the International Code Status Report 2016 (Promotion of Breastfeeding)

The 2016 report provides information on the status of implementing the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions (“the Code”) in and by countries. The report also identifies in which countries they actively promote the benefits of breastfeeding.

Categories:Evidence of Breastfeeding promotion or related activity
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:WHO UNICEF IBFAN
References:WHO. UNICEF. IBFAN. Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: National Implementation of the International Code. Status Report 2016. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016

National food and nutrition consulting committee

National Multisectoral stakeholder mechanism in place.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Target age group:Adults and children
Find out more:extranet.who.int

Nutrient content lists

In China, producers and retailers are required by law to provide a list of the nutrient content of pre-packaged food products (with limited exceptions), even in the absence of a nutrition or health claim. The rules define which nutrients must be listed and on what basis (eg per 100g/per serving).

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Target age group:Adults and children
References:https://policydatabase.wcrf.org/level_one?page=nourishing-level-one#step2=0#step3=327

No actions could be found for the above criteria.

Contextual factors

Disclaimer: These contextual factors should be interpreted with care. Results are updated as regularly as possible and use very specific criteria. The criteria used and full definitions are available for download at the bottom of this page.

Tap on a tick to find out more about policies influencing this factor.

Labelling

Is there mandatory nutrition labelling?Present
Front-of-package labelling?Present-(voluntary)
Back-of-pack nutrition declaration?Present
Color coding?Absent
Warning label?Absent

Regulation and marketing

Are there fiscal policies on unhealthy products?Absent
Tax on unhealthy foods?Absent
Tax on unhealthy drinks?Absent
Are there fiscal policies on healthy products?Absent
Subsidy on fruits?Absent
Subsidy on vegetables?Absent
Subsidy on other healthy products?Absent
Mandatory limit or ban of trans fat (all settings)?Absent
Mandatory limit of trans fats in place (all settings)? Absent
Ban on trans-fats or phos in place (all settings)? Absent
Are there any mandatory policies/marketing restrictions on the promotion of unhealthy food/drinks to children?Absent
Mandatory restriction on broadcast media?Absent
Mandatory restriction on non-broadcast media?Absent
Voluntary policies/marketing restrictions on the promotion of unhealthy food/drinks to children?Absent
Are there mandatory standards for food in schools?Absent
Are there any mandatory nutrient limits in any manufactured food products?Absent
Nutrition standards for public sector procurement?Absent

Political will and support

National obesity strategy or nutrition and physical activity national strategy?Present
National obesity strategy?Present
National childhood obesity strategy?Present
Comprehensive nutrition strategy?Present
Comprehensive physical activity strategy?Present
Evidence-based dietary guidelines and/or RDAs?Present
National target(s) on reducing obesity?Present
Guidelines/policy on obesity treatment?Present
Promotion of breastfeeding?Present

Monitoring and surveillance

Monitoring of the prevalence and incidence for the main obesity-related NCDs and risk factors?Present
Within 5 years?Present

Governance and resource

Multi-sectoral national co-ordination mechanism for obesity or nutrition (including obesity)?Present

Key

Present
Present (voluntary)
Incoming
Absent
Unknown

Last updated September 13, 2022

See more policies here

Download contextual factors as a PDF Contextual factors definitions

Feedback

Are you finding the information on these pages useful?
Yes
No
N/A

Thank you for feeding back to World Obesity.

If you have any further feedback or suggestions please email us at obesity@worldobesity.org.

Close
Loading