• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Health systems
  • Policies
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2020

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18-84
Sample size:16571
Area covered:National
References:Swedish National Public Health Survey 2020. Available at http://fohm-app.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/Folkhalsodata/pxweb/sv/B_HLV/B_HLV__bFyshals__bbeFyshalsvikt/hlv1bmiaald.px/ (last access 03.03.21)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2013

Survey type:Measured
Age:16-84
Sample size:9552
Area covered:National
References:http://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/documents/statistik-uppfoljning/enkater-undersokningar/nationella-folkhalsoenkaten/Resultat-2013/resultat-overvikt-fetma-hlv-2013.xls (accessed 3rd April 2014)
Notes:Details provided by the Public Health Agency of Sweden
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2002

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-64
Sample size:1032
Area covered:Regional
References:Berg C, Rosengeren A, Aires N, Lappas G, Toren K, Thelle D and Lissner L. (2005). Trends in overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2002 in Goteborg, West Sweden. IJO, 29 (8): 916 - 924.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1990

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-64
Sample size:1579
Area covered:Regional
References:Berg C, Rosengren A, Aires N, :appas G, Toren K, Thelle D, Lissner L. Trends in overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2002 in Goteborg, West Sweden. IJO 2005 online published ahead of print.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1985

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-64
Sample size:1404
Area covered:Regional
References:Berg C, Rosengren A, Aires N, :appas G, Toren K, Thelle D, Lissner L. Trends in overweight and obesity from 1985 to 2002 in Goteborg, West Sweden. IJO 2005 Aug;29(8):916-24
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2017-2018

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-15
Sample size:4294
Area covered:National
References:Swedish National Public Health Survey 2017-18 Available at http://fohm-app.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/Folkhalsodata/pxweb/sv/C_HBSC/C_HBSC__Halsa__Vikt/viktHBSC.px/table/tableViewLayout1/ (last accessed 03.03.21)
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2014-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:11
Sample size:3307
Area covered:Regional
References:Eriksson M, Lingfors H, Golsäter M. Trends in prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among Swedish children and adolescents between 2004 and 2015. Acta Paediatr. 2018 Apr 10. doi: 10.1111/apa.14356.
Notes:11yrs Sample 3307, Jönköping County IOTF International Cut off applied NB. Combined child data estimated. These estimates were calculated by weighting male and female survey results. Weighting based on World Bank Population % total female (https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL.FE.ZS - accessed 20.11.20)
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2013

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-9
Sample size:1135
Area covered:Regional
References:Moraeus L, Lissner L, Olsson L, Sjoberg A. Age and time effects on children’s lifestyle and overweight in Sweden. BMC Public Health (2015) 15:355 DOI 10.1186/s12889-015-1635-3
Notes:IOTF International Cut off points
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-9
Sample size:4538
Area covered:National
References:A. Sjöberg, L. Moraeus, A. Yngve, E. Poortvliet, U. Al-Ansari and L. Lissner. Overweight and obesity in a representative sample of schoolchildren - exploring the urban-rural gradient in Sweden. Obesity Reviews 2011;12: 305–314. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00838.x http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21348925
Notes:IOTF International cut off points
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2007-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-8
Sample size:3716
Area covered:National
References:Spinelli et al (2019). 'Childhood Severe Obesity in Europe', Obes Facts.12, pp. 244–258. (Data from COSI round 1-3)
Notes:NOTE - this data is from COSI round I (2007 - 208) IOTF cut-offs used.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2000-2001

Survey type:Measured
Age:10
Sample size:6311
Area covered:Regional
References:Mårild S, Bondestam M, Bergström R, Ehnberg S, Hollsing A and Albertsson-Wikland K. (2004). Prevalence trends of obesity and overweight among 10-year-old children in western Sweden and relationship with parental body mass index. Acta Pœdiatric, 93; 1588 -1595.
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1990-1991

Survey type:Measured
Age:10
Sample size:3738
References:Bellizzi MC, Horgan GW, Guillaume M, Dietz WH. Prevalence of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity in Asian and European countries. In: Obesity in Childhood
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1986

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-11
Sample size:507
Area covered:Regional
References:Petersen S, Brulin C, Bergstrom E. Increasing prevalence of overweight in young schoolchildren in Umea, Sweden, from 1986 to 2001. Acta Paediatr 2003;92:848-853
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by age and education

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Overweight/obesity by education

Men, 2020

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:16-84
Sample size:16571
Area covered:National
References:Swedish National Public Health Survey 2020. Available at http://fohm-app.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/Folkhalsodata/pxweb/sv/B_HLV/B_HLV__bFyshals__bbeFyshalsvikt/hlv1bmifutb.px/table/tableViewLayout1/ (Last access 03.03.21)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2020

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:16-84
Sample size:16571
Area covered:National
References:Swedish National Public Health Survey 2020. Available at http://fohm-app.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/Folkhalsodata/pxweb/sv/B_HLV/B_HLV__bFyshals__bbeFyshalsvikt/hlv1bmifutb.px/table/tableViewLayout1/ (Last access 03.03.21)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Notes:Less than primary, primary and lower secondary education (levels 0-2) Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (levels 3 and 4) Tertiary education (levels 5-8) Translated graphics for obesity data by educational level from years - 2010, 2006, 1996-97, and 1980-81 are also available on request.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Notes:Less than primary, primary and lower secondary education (levels 0-2) Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (levels 3 and 4) Tertiary education (levels 5-8) Translated graphics for obesity data by educational level from years - 2010, 2006, 1996-97, and 1980-81 are also available on request.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2006

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:16-74
Sample size:56889
Area covered:National
References:Swedish National Public Health Survey 2006 Wadman C, Bostrom G, Karlsson AS. Health on Equal Terms. Results from the 2006 Swedish National Public Health Survey. Swedish National Institute of Public Health 2008.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2006

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:16-74
Sample size:56889
Area covered:National
References:Swedish National Public Health Survey 2006 Wadman C, Bostrom G, Karlsson AS. Health on Equal Terms. Results from the 2006 Swedish National Public Health Survey. Swedish National Institute of Public Health 2008.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 1996-1997

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:45-64
Sample size:3455
Area covered:National
References:Lissner L, Johansson SE, Qvist J, Rössner S, Wolk A. Social mapping of the obesity epidemic in Sweden. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Jun;24(6):801-5
Notes:Education (used as a proxy for socioeconomic status in this study). Respondents were classified into one of three groups: Low = primary school level, ≤9 years of education; Middle = completed ≥2 years of high school, 10-11 years of education; and High = completed 3 years of high school or university studies, >11 years of education.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 1996-1997

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:45-64
Sample size:3455
Area covered:National
References:Lissner L, Johansson SE, Qvist J, Rössner S, Wolk A. Social mapping of the obesity epidemic in Sweden. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Jun;24(6):801-5
Notes:Education (used as a proxy for socioeconomic status in this study). Respondents were classified into one of three groups: Low = primary school level, ≤9 years of education; Middle = completed ≥2 years of high school, 10-11 years of education; and High = completed 3 years of high school or university studies, >11 years of education.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 1980-1981

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:25-44
Sample size:4893
Area covered:National
References:Lissner L, Johansson SE, Qvist J, Rössner S, Wolk A. Social mapping of the obesity epidemic in Sweden. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Jun;24(6):801-5
Notes:Education (used as a proxy for socioeconomic status in this study). Respondents were classified into one of three groups: Low = primary school level, ≤9 years of education; Middle = completed ≥2 years of high school, 10-11 years of education; and High = completed 3 years of high school or university studies, >11 years of education.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 1980-1981

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:25-44
Sample size:4893
Area covered:National
References:Lissner L, Johansson SE, Qvist J, Rössner S, Wolk A. Social mapping of the obesity epidemic in Sweden. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Jun;24(6):801-5
Notes:Education (used as a proxy for socioeconomic status in this study). Respondents were classified into one of three groups: Low = primary school level, ≤9 years of education; Middle = completed ≥2 years of high school, 10-11 years of education; and High = completed 3 years of high school or university studies, >11 years of education.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 1980-1981

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:45-64
Sample size:3675
Area covered:National
References:Lissner L, Johansson SE, Qvist J, Rössner S, Wolk A. Social mapping of the obesity epidemic in Sweden. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Jun;24(6):801-5
Notes:Education (used as a proxy for socioeconomic status in this study). Respondents were classified into one of three groups: Low = primary school level, ≤9 years of education; Middle = completed ≥2 years of high school, 10-11 years of education; and High = completed 3 years of high school or university studies, >11 years of education.
Cutoffs:Other
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 1980-1981

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:45-64
Sample size:3675
Area covered:National
References:Lissner L, Johansson SE, Qvist J, Rössner S, Wolk A. Social mapping of the obesity epidemic in Sweden. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Jun;24(6):801-5
Notes:Education (used as a proxy for socioeconomic status in this study). Respondents were classified into one of three groups: Low = primary school level, ≤9 years of education; Middle = completed ≥2 years of high school, 10-11 years of education; and High = completed 3 years of high school or university studies, >11 years of education.
Cutoffs:Other
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Boys, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-9
Sample size:1062
Area covered:Regional - West Sweden
References:Moraeus, L.et al (2014) 'Stable prevalence of obesity in Swedish schoolchildren from 2008 to 2013 but widening socio-economic gap in girls', ACTA Paediatrica, 103, pp. 1277–1284
Notes:Prevalence of overweight and obesity according to area education level (proxy for socioeconomic position) in 2008, 2010 and 2013. IOTF Cut-offs used
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-9
Sample size:1062
Area covered:Regional - West Sweden
References:Moraeus, L.et al (2014) 'Stable prevalence of obesity in Swedish schoolchildren from 2008 to 2013 but widening socio-economic gap in girls', ACTA Paediatrica, 103, pp. 1277–1284
Notes:Prevalence of overweight and obesity according to area education level (proxy for socioeconomic position) in 2008, 2010 and 2013. IOTF Cut-offs used
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-9
Sample size:4538
Area covered:National
References:Sjöberg, A., Moraeus, L., Yngve, A., Poortvliet, E., Al-Ansari, U. and Lissner, L. (2011), Overweight and obesity in a representative sample of schoolchildren – exploring the urban–rural gradient in Sweden. Obesity Reviews, 12: 305–314. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00838.x
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by age

Adults, 2020

Survey type:Self-reported
Sample size:16571
Area covered:National
References:Swedish National Public Health Survey 2020. Available at http://fohm-app.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/Folkhalsodata/pxweb/sv/B_HLV/B_HLV__bFyshals__bbeFyshalsvikt/hlv1bmiaald.px/ (last access 03.03.21)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2013

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:9552
Area covered:National
References:http://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/documents/statistik-uppfoljning/enkater-undersokningar/nationella-folkhalsoenkaten/Resultat-2013/resultat-overvikt-fetma-hlv-2013.xls
Notes:Measured (unconfirmed awaiting translation) Translated graphics for obesity data by age category from years - 1996-97, 1988-89 and 1980-81 are also available on request.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1996-1997

Survey type:Self-reported
Sample size:Male = 5596Female = 5821
Area covered:National
References:L Lissner, S-E Johansson, J Qvist2, S Rössner and A Wolk. Social mapping of the obesity epidemic in Sweden; http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v24/n6/pdf/0801237a.pdf (last accessed 30 Sept 2015)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1988-1989

Survey type:Self-reported
Sample size:Male = 6081Female = 6310
Area covered:National
References:L Lissner, S-E Johansson, J Qvist2, S Rössner and A Wolk. Social mapping of the obesity epidemic in Sweden; http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v24/n6/pdf/0801237a.pdf (last accessed 30 Sept 2015)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1980-1981

Survey type:Self-reported
Sample size:7055 Male and 7421 Female
Area covered:National
References:L Lissner, S-E Johansson, J Qvist, S Rössner and A Wolk. Social mapping of the obesity epidemic in Sweden; http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v24/n6/pdf/0801237a.pdf (last accessed 30 Sept 2015)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2015-2017

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:5836
Area covered:National
References:WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) Report on the fourth round of data collection, 2015–2017 (2021). Available at: https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/activities/who-european-childhood-obesity-surveillance-initiative-cosi/cosi-publications/who-european-childhood-obesity-surveillance-initiative-cosi-report-on-the-fourth-round-of-data-collection,-20152017-2021. Accessed 19.05.21.
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2002

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:527
Area covered:Regional (local) - Uppsala County
References:Holmbäck U, Frideman J, Gustafsson J et al. Overweight more prevalent among children than among adolescents. Acta Paediatrica 2006; 96: p577-581
Notes:Translated graphics available on request for childhood obesity data by age category from 2001 and 1982.
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2001

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:1732
Area covered:National
References:Ekblom, Örjan B, Oddsson, Kristjan and Ekblom, Bj”ßrn T (2004) ' Prevalence and regional differences in overweight in 2001 and trends in BMI distribution in children from 1987 to 2001' Scandinavian Journal of Public Health; 32:4, 257-263
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1982

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:540
Area covered:Regional (local) - Uppsala County
References:Holmbäck U, Frideman J, Gustafsson J et al. Overweight more prevalent among children than among adolescents. Acta Paediatrica 2006; 96: p577-581
Cutoffs:Other

Overweight/obesity by region

Men, 2018

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:16-84
Sample size:40,000
Area covered:National
References:Folkhälsomyndigheten. (2018) Municipality Fact Sheet. Available from: https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/kommunfakta/ (Accessed 6 March 2019).
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2018

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:16-84
Sample size:40,000
Area covered:National
References:Folkhälsomyndigheten. (2018) Municipality Fact Sheet. Available from: https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/kommunfakta/ (Accessed 6 March 2019).
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2017-2020

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:16+
Sample size:32860
Area covered:National
References:National Public Health Survey 2017-2020. Available at http://fohm-app.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/Folkhalsodata/pxweb/sv/B_HLV/B_HLV__bFyshals__bbeFyshalsvikt/hlv1bmixreg.px/ (last accessed 09.03.21)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017-2020

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:16+
Sample size:32860
Area covered:National
References:National Public Health Survey 2017-2020. Available at http://fohm-app.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/Folkhalsodata/pxweb/sv/B_HLV/B_HLV__bFyshals__bbeFyshalsvikt/hlv1bmixreg.px/ (last accessed 09.03.21)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2006

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:16-74
Sample size:56889
Area covered:National
References:Swedish National Public Health Survey 2006. Wadman C, Bostrom G, Karlsson AS. Health on Equal Terms. Results from the 2006 Swedish National Public Health Survey. Swedish National Institute of Public Health 2008.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2006

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:16-74
Sample size:56889
Area covered:National
References:Swedish National Public Health Survey 2006. Wadman C, Bostrom G, Karlsson AS. Health on Equal Terms. Results from the 2006 Swedish National Public Health Survey. Swedish National Institute of Public Health 2008.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-9
Sample size:4538
Area covered:National
References:Sjöberg, A., Moraeus, L., Yngve, A., Poortvliet, E., Al-Ansari, U. and Lissner, L. (2011), Overweight and obesity in a representative sample of schoolchildren – exploring the urban–rural gradient in Sweden. Obesity Reviews, 12: 305–314. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00838.x
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-9
Sample size:4538
Area covered:National
References:Sjöberg, A., Moraeus, L., Yngve, A., Poortvliet, E., Al-Ansari, U. and Lissner, L. (2011), Overweight and obesity in a representative sample of schoolchildren – exploring the urban–rural gradient in Sweden. Obesity Reviews, 12: 305–314. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00838.x
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 2000-2001

Survey type:Measured
Age:10
Sample size:11825
Area covered:Regional
References:1) Marlid S, Bonderstam M, Bergstrom R, Ehnberg S, Hollsing A, Albertsson-Wikland K. Prevalence trends of obesity and overweight among 10 year old children in western Sweden and relationship with parental body mass index. Acta Paediatr 2004;93:1588-1595. 2)Neovius M, Janson A, Rossner S. Prevalence of Obesity in Sweden. Obesity Reviews 2006;7:1-7
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2000-2001

Survey type:Measured
Age:10
Sample size:11825
Area covered:Regional
References:1) Marlid S, Bonderstam M, Bergstrom R, Ehnberg S, Hollsing A, Albertsson-Wikland K. Prevalence trends of obesity and overweight among 10 year old children in western Sweden and relationship with parental body mass index. Acta Paediatr 2004;93:1588-1595. 2)Neovius M, Janson A, Rossner S. Prevalence of Obesity in Sweden. Obesity Reviews 2006;7:1-7
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by age and region

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2014 Urbanisation - http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1u&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2014 Urbanisation - http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1u&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Overweight/obesity by age and socio-economic group

Adults, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2014 Socio economic - http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2014 Socio economic - http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2014 Socio economic - http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Men, 2020

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:16-84
Sample size:16571
Area covered:National
References:Swedish National Public Health Survey 2020. Available at http://fohm-app.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/Folkhalsodata/pxweb/sv/B_HLV/B_HLV__bFyshals__bbeFyshalsvikt/hlv1bmibeko.px/table/tableViewLayout1/ (last accessed 03.03.21)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2020

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:16-84
Sample size:16571
Area covered:National
References:Swedish National Public Health Survey 2020. Available at http://fohm-app.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/Folkhalsodata/pxweb/sv/B_HLV/B_HLV__bFyshals__bbeFyshalsvikt/hlv1bmibeko.px/table/tableViewLayout1/ (last accessed 03.03.21)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:2014 Socio economic - http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Notes:1st Quintile (lowest income), 5th Quintile (highest income) Please note where data = zero, there were insufficient data.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:2014 Socio economic - http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Notes:1st Quintile (lowest income), 5th Quintile (highest income) Please note where data = zero, there were insufficient data.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Boys, 2017-2018

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-15
Sample size:4162
Area covered:National
References:World Health Organization (2020). Spotlight on adolescent health and well-being - Findings from the 2017/2018 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey in Europe and Canada. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/332091/9789289055000-eng.pdf. Last accessed: 25.05.21.
Notes:HBSC Family Affluence Scale (FAS) - "HBSC uses an alternative measure, the Family Affluence Scale, which asks young people about material assets such as family cars, number of foreign holidays, computers, bathrooms and dishwashers in the household, holidays and having a bedroom to oneself. The scale, which enables users to add up how many of these assets a young person has in their home compared with other adolescents in their country/region, has been shown to provide a valid indicator of relative affluence."
Definitions:HBSC Family Affluence Scale (FAS)
Cutoffs:WHO

Girls, 2017-2018

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-15
Sample size:4162
Area covered:National
References:World Health Organization (2020). Spotlight on adolescent health and well-being - Findings from the 2017/2018 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey in Europe and Canada. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/332091/9789289055000-eng.pdf. Last accessed: 25.05.21.
Notes:HBSC Family Affluence Scale (FAS) - "HBSC uses an alternative measure, the Family Affluence Scale, which asks young people about material assets such as family cars, number of foreign holidays, computers, bathrooms and dishwashers in the household, holidays and having a bedroom to oneself. The scale, which enables users to add up how many of these assets a young person has in their home compared with other adolescents in their country/region, has been shown to provide a valid indicator of relative affluence."
Definitions:HBSC Family Affluence Scale (FAS)
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2007-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-9
Sample size:1824
Area covered:National
References:Ahrens W, Pigeot I, Pohlablen H et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in European children below the age of 10. International Journal of Obesity (2014) 38, S99-S107; doi10.1038/ijo.2014.140
Notes:Income Translated graphics also available on request for data by socioeconomic status from 1999.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 2003

Survey type:Measured
Age:10
Sample size:2416
Area covered:Regional (Schools in Stockholm County - Schools selected from 8 different SES areas)
References:Sundblom E, Petzold M, Rasmussen F et al. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalences levelling off in Skockholm but socioeconomic differences persist. International Journal of Obesity (2008); 32: 1525-1530
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2003

Survey type:Measured
Age:10
Sample size:2416
Area covered:Regional (Schools in Stockholm County - Schools selected from 8 different SES areas)
References:Sundblom E, Petzold M, Rasmussen F et al. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalences levelling off in Skockholm but socioeconomic differences persist. International Journal of Obesity (2008); 32: 1525-1530
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 1999

Survey type:Measured
Age:10
Sample size:2416
Area covered:Regional (Schools in Stockholm County - Schools selected from 8 different SES areas)
References:Sundblom E, Petzold M, Rasmussen F et al. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalences levelling off in Skockholm but socioeconomic differences persist. International Journal of Obesity (2008); 32: 1525-1530
Notes:Comparison data for 2003 available
Cutoffs:Other

Girls, 1999

Survey type:Measured
Age:10
Sample size:2416
Area covered:Regional (Schools in Stockholm County - Schools selected from 8 different SES areas)
References:Sundblom E, Petzold M, Rasmussen F et al. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalences levelling off in Skockholm but socioeconomic differences persist. International Journal of Obesity (2008); 32: 1525-1530
Notes:Comparison data for 2003 available
Cutoffs:Other

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Sugar consumption

Adults, 2016

References:Source: Euromonitor International
Definitions:Sugar consumption (Number of 500g sugar portions/person/month)

Estimated per capita sugar sweetened beverages intake

Adults, 2016

References:Source: Euromonitor International

Prevalence of at least daily carbonated soft drink consumption

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
References:World Health Organization. (2017). Adolescent obesity and related behaviours: Trends and inequalities in the who european region, 2002-2014: observations from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) WHO collaborative cross-national study (J. Inchley, D. Currie, J. Jewel, J. Breda, & V. Barnekow, Eds.). World Health Organization. Sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org
Notes:15-year-old adolescents
Definitions:Prevalence of at least daily carbonated soft drink consumption (% of at least daily carbonated soft drink consumption)

Prevalence of confectionery consumption

Adults, 2016

References:Source: Euromonitor International
Definitions:Prevalence of confectionery consumption (Number of 50g confectionery portions/person/month)

Prevalence of sweet/savoury snack consumption

Adults, 2016

References:Source: Euromonitor International
Definitions:Prevalence of sweet/savoury snack consumption (Number of 35g sweet/savoury snack portions/person/month)

Estimated per capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Prevalence of less than daily fruit consumption

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
References:Global School-based Student Health Surveys. Beal et al (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287. Sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily fruit consumption (% less-than-daily fruit consumption)

Prevalence of less than daily vegetable consumption

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily vegetable consumption (% less-than-daily vegetable consumption)

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Breast cancer

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, breast, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, cervix uteri, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2019

Age:20-79
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th edn. Brussels,Belgium: 2019. Available at: https://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Health systems

Economic classification: High Income

Health systems summary

Sweden has universal healthcare coverage for all legal residents (and undocumented or asylum-seeking children) through a government-funded healthcare system. All levels of government are involved in the maintenance of the health system, with the national government overseeing policy and county councils organising the financing and delivery of services. Government funding of this health system is through general tax revenue that is collected by country councils, municipalities and central government. This allows the public system to provide a comprehensive range of publicly financed health services for adults, adolescents and children, which in turn means that Sweden can generally provide a high level of financial protection.

In 2016, 15% of health spending was out of pocket payments, which was below the European Union average. Health-related financial hardship is mostly due to the cost of dental care, medications and outpatient care.

Indicators

Where is the country’s government in the journey towards defining ‘Obesity as a disease’?Some progress
Where is the country’s healthcare provider in the journey towards defining ‘Obesity as a disease’?Some progress
Is there specialist training available dedicated to the training of health professionals to prevent, diagnose, treat and manage obesity?No
Have any taxes or subsidies been put in place to protect/assist/inform the population around obesity?No
Are there adequate numbers of trained health professionals in specialties relevant to obesity in urban areas?No
Are there adequate numbers of trained health professionals in specialties relevant to obesity in rural areas?No
Are there any obesity-specific recommendations or guidelines published for adults?Yes
Are there any obesity-specific recommendations or guidelines published for children?Yes
In practice, how is obesity treatment largely funded?Not known

Perceived barriers to treatment

  • Failure to recognise or accept all available treatment options
  • Lack of financial investment and funding for coverage
  • Stigma

Summary of stakeholder feedback

Stakeholders reported that the government does not (neither as an institution nor as the public healthcare provider) fully recognise obesity as a disease. There is, however, a focus on promoting healthy lifestyles. Example initiatives and policies include free school meals, promotion of physical activity in schools and workplaces and promotion of healthy diets.

Treatment options for adults living with obesity is said to be limited, with great variation geographically. The availability and coverage of services and treatment was reported to be dependent on the political climate in the local region and the setup of the local health system. For many, it appears that surgery is the main and only free treatment option. Other treatment, on the other hand, such as behavioural therapy and obesity medication, can be difficult to access.

Stakeholders also noted that people tend to leave the system because they are not referred onto specialist care or treatment failure. One stakeholder reported that excess emphasis on individual responsibility concerning obesity results in many to believe that the health care system has no role to play in obesity management and treatment. It appears that treatment is only offered when comorbidities are present or when the individual actively asks for help with their obesity.

While there are national guidelines for the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, it was recognised that there are no national guidelines on the treatment of obesity in Sweden. There are, however, regional guidelines for treatment available but the extent to which they are adhered is unknown.

There are inadequate numbers of suitably qualified obesity professionals to treat obesity in both urban and rural areas in Sweden and there appears to be limited to no specialist training available

Based on interviews/survey returns from 3 stakeholders

Last updated: June 2020

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Policies, Interventions and Actions

Trans-fat policy

The content of trans fat, other than trans fat naturally occurring in fat of animal origin, in food intended for the final consumer and food intended for supply to retail, shall not exceed 2 grams per 100 grams of fat.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2021 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:The content of trans fat, other than trans fat naturally occurring in fat of animal origin, in food intended for the final consumer and food intended for supply to retail, shall not exceed 2 grams per 100 grams of fat.
Find out more:extranet.who.int
References:Countdown to 2023: WHO report on global trans-fat elimination 2020. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO

A Healthy School Start Plus

Aims to prevent childhood obesity and overweight in disadvantaged areas in a 6 month programme using education directed at parents, motivational interviewing of parents, school based activities for children and online self-test

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Elinder et al
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Elinder et al (2018). A Healthy School Start Plus for prevention of childhood overweight and obesity in disadvantaged areas through parental support in the school setting - study protocol for a parallel group cluster randomised trial. BMC Public health. 18(459)

National guidelines for prevention and treatment in case of unhealthy lifestyles

National guidelines on diet, nutrition & physical activity relating to overweight & obesity.

Categories:Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action plan
Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Linked document:Download linked document

School Fruit, Vegetables and Milk Scheme

"Applicable since 1 August 2017, the EU school fruit, vegetables and milk scheme combines two previous schemes (the school fruit and vegetables scheme and the school milk scheme) under a single legal framework for more efficiency and an enhanced focus on health and educational. The scheme supports the distribution of products, educational measures and information measures. The scheme supports the distribution of fruit, vegetables, milk and certain milk products to schoolchildren, from nursery to secondary school. EU countries approve a list of products (in collaboration with their health and nutrition authorities) which will help achieve the schemes objective of helping children to follow a healthy diet. Priority is for fresh fruit and vegetables and for plain milk. In order to support a varied diet and/or specific nutritional needs, EU countries may also make processed fruit and vegetables such as juices and soups and certain milk products such as yoghurt and cheese, available. Additionally, under stricter conditions, milk-based drinks may be included." - EU Commission

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Organisation:European Commission
Find out more:ec.europa.eu
References:https://ec.europa.eu/info/food-farming-fisheries/key-policies/common-agricultural-policy/market-measures/school-fruit-vegetables-and-milk-scheme/school-scheme-explained_en

Action plan for overweight and obesity (2016-2020) - Stockholm

Aims to reduce the proportion of overweight and obesity in adults, children and pregnancy by 2020.

Categories (partial):Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action plan
Year(s):2016-2020
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Hälso- och sjukvårdsförvaltningen
Find out more:extranet.who.int
Linked document:Download linked document
References:HPO. Så kan vi vända trenden Handlingsprogram övervikt och fetma 2016-2020. Available from: http://dok.slso.sll.se/CES/FHG/Folkhalsoarbete/Informationsmaterial/Handlingsprogram-overvikt-fetma-2016-2020.pdf. Accessed 13 December 2018.

AKO Skåne guideline for primary care based on regional care program (E66-P Obesity)

Guidelines for obesity care; outlining responsibilities, diagnostics, treatment, referral procedures, and follow-up

Categories (partial):Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2016-2019
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Caregiver Skåne
Find out more:vardgivare.skane.se
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Caregiver Skåne. Obesity and obesity in adults. Available from: https://vardgivare.skane.se/vardriktlinjer/medicinska-omraden/endokrina-organ-fetma-och-diabetes/ako/overvikt-och-fetma-hos-vuxna/ (Accessed August 2019).

EU nutrient content lists

Passed in 2011, EU Regulation 1169/2011 on the Provision of Food Information to Consumers requires a list of the nutrient content of most pre-packaged food to be provided on the back of the pack from 13 December 2016.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:European Commission
Find out more:eur-lex.europa.eu

Find your way to eat greener, not too much and be active! (Hitta ditt sätt att äta grönare, lagom mycket och röra på dig)

The Swedish National Food Agency (Livsmedelsverket) published the revised version of the national dietary guidelines in 2015. The Swedish dietary guidelines are aimed at healthy adults, adolescents and children 2 years and over and can be adjusted to different food cultures. Recommendations for specific population groups (pregnant and lactating women, infants and children under 2 years of age) and vegetarians are provided separately. The FBDGs are based on the Nordic Nutritional Recommendations (NNR 2012), knowledge of the population's dietary habits and scientific knowledge of the environmental impact of various food groups.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
References:http://www.fao.org/nutrition/education/food-dietary-guidelines/regions/countries/sweden/en/

Swedish Dietary Guidelines 2015

The 2015 is an update on previous guidelines, the FAO provide a summary in English

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Swedish National Food Agency (NFA)
Find out more:www.fao.org
Linked document:Download linked document

European Union (EU) Action Plan on Childhood Obesity 2014-2020

EU Action plan. To contribute to halting the rise in overweight and obesity in children and young people (0-18 years) by 2020

Categories:Transnational Obesity Strategies/Policy or Action Plan
Year(s):2014-2020
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Ministry of Health
Find out more:ec.europa.eu
Linked document:Download linked document
References:EU Action Plan on Childhood Table of contents [Internet]. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/nutrition_physical_activity/docs/childhoodobesity_actionplan_2014_2020_en.pdf ‌

Mobile-based intervention (MINISTOP)

Assessing effectiveness of mobile phone technology (mobile health) in changing behaviours and managing weight in children.

Categories (partial):Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2014-2015
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Nystrom et al (2017).
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Nystrom et al (2017). Mobile-based intervention intended to stop obesity in preschool-aged children: the MINISTOP randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 105(6). pp. 1327-1335.

The Education Act

The Education Act came into force 1 July 2011 which included a requirement that school meals should be nutritious and free of charge.

Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Government
Find out more:sweden.se
References:Currently a web link to this intervention is unavailable. If you are aware of the location of this document/intervention, please contact us at obesity@worldobesity.org _x000D__x000D_

Nordic Key Hole Label

Voluntary nordic food label that identifies products containing less fat, sugars and salt and more dietary fibre than other products within the same category. Nutritional criteria is the same as in Norway and Denmark.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2009 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Swedish National Food Agency
Find out more:www.nokkelhullsmerket.no

General Marketing Act

The General Marketing Act includes a ban on any advertising targeted at children under 12 years old on national radio and TV before and during children's programs. According to European legislation, the ban only covers broadcasts originating in Sweden. Link leads to unofficial English translation.

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2008 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Linked document:Download linked document

EU health and nutrient claims regulation

Regulation nº 1924/2006 establishes EU-wide rules on the use of specified health and nutrient claims. The European Commission approves claims provided they are based on scientific evidence and accessible consumers. The European Food Safety Authority is responsible for evaluating the scientific evidence supporting health claims. Nutrition claims may only be used on food defined as "healthy" by a nutrient profile.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2006 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:European Commission
Linked document:Download linked document
References:https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A32006R1924

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