• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Economic impact
  • Policies
  • Contextual factors
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Obesity prevalence

Women, 2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:123092
Area covered:National
References:Pakistan National Nutrition Survey 2018 https://www.unicef.org/pakistan/media/2826/file/National%20Nutrition%20S (Accessed 03.11.20)
Notes:Nutritional status of non-pregnant women of reproductive age
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:3722
Area covered:National
References:National Institute of Population Studies - NIPS/Pakistan and ICF. 2019. Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18. Islamabad, Pakistan, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NIPS and ICF. https://www.dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR354/FR354.pdf
Notes:Demographic Health Survey data includes ever married women aged 15-49 years only and may include males aged 15-59.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:18-69
Sample size:7710
Area covered:Regional
References:STEPS Pakistan 2013/14 Fact Sheet (full report would not download) https://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/steps/2014_Pakistan_STEPS_FactSheet.pdf (last accessed 05.11.19) Report https://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/steps/2014_Pakistan_STEPS_Report.pdf (last accessed 19.10.20)
Notes:Punjab & Siindh Province of Pakistan STEPS
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2012-2013

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:4170
Area covered:National
References:National Institute of Population Studies - NIPS/Pakistan and ICF International. 2013. Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012-13. Islamabad, Pakistan: NIPS/Pakistan and ICF International.
Notes:Demographic Health Survey data includes ever married women aged 15-49 years only and may include males aged 15-59.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1990-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:15+
Sample size:8972
Area covered:National
References:Jafar TH, Chaturvedi N and Pappas G. (2006). Prevalence of overweight and obesity and their association with hypertension and diabetes mellitus in an Indo-Asian population. CMAJ, 175(9):1071 - 1077.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2021

Survey type:Measured
Age:9-17
Sample size:3551
Area covered:National
References:The Current Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Associated with Demographic Factors among Pakistan School-Aged Children and Adolescents — An Empirical Cross-Sectional Study. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/19/18/11619
Cutoffs:CDC US 2000 BMI charts

Children, 2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:10-19
Sample size:103618
Area covered:National
References:Pakistan National Nutrition Survey 2018 https://www.unicef.org/pakistan/media/2826/file/National%20Nutrition%20S (Accessed 03.11.20)
Notes:BMI-for-age cut-offs also available NB. Combined child data estimated. These estimates were calculated by weighting male and female survey results. Weighting based on World Bank Population % total female 2019 (https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL.FE.ZS - accessed 21.10.20)'
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2009-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-12
Sample size:1860
Area covered:Regional
References:Mushtaq MU, Gull S, Mushtaq K, Agdullah HM, Khurshid U, Shahid U, Shad MA, Akram J. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. BMC Pediatrics 2012, 12:31 doi:10.1186/1471-2431-12-31
Notes:Region: Lahore, IOTF Cut Off (it assumed that the paper oveweight includes obesity)
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2008-2009

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:13-15
Sample size:5192
Area covered:National
References:Global School based Student Health Survey Pakistan available at https://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/gshs/Pakistan_2009_FS.pdf?ua=1(last accessed 14.12.20)
Cutoffs:WHO

Overweight/obesity by education

Women, 2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:123092
Area covered:National
References:Pakistan National Nutrition Survey 2018 https://www.unicef.org/pakistan/media/2826/file/National%20Nutrition%20S (Accessed 03.11.20)
Notes:Non-pregnant women
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:4690
Area covered:National
References:National Institute of Population Studies - NIPS/Pakistan and ICF. 2019. Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18. Islamabad, Pakistan, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NIPS and ICF. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR354/FR354.pdf (last accessed 06.06.2022)
Notes:Demographic Health Survey data includes ever married women aged 15-49 years only and may include males aged 15-59.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:4,767
Area covered:National
References:Janjua et al 2015. Association of Household and Community Socioeconomic Position and Urbanicity with Underweight and Overweight among Women in Pakistan. PLoS ONE 10(4). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122314
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2021

Survey type:Measured
Age:9-17
Sample size:3551
Area covered:National
References:The Current Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Associated with Demographic Factors among Pakistan School-Aged Children and Adolescents — An Empirical Cross-Sectional Study. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/19/18/11619
Cutoffs:CDC US 2000 BMI charts

Boys, 2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:10-19
Area covered:National
References:Pakistan National Nutrition Survey 2018 https://www.unicef.org/pakistan/media/2826/file/National%20Nutrition%20S (Accessed 03.11.20)
Notes:BMI-for-age cut-offs also available
Cutoffs:WHO

Girls, 2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:10-19
Area covered:National
References:Pakistan National Nutrition Survey 2018 https://www.unicef.org/pakistan/media/2826/file/National%20Nutrition%20S (Accessed 03.11.20)
Notes:BMI-for-age cut-offs also available
Cutoffs:WHO

Overweight/obesity by age

Women, 2018

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:123092
Area covered:National
References:Pakistan National Nutrition Survey 2018 https://www.unicef.org/pakistan/media/2826/file/National%20Nutrition%20S (Accessed 03.11.20)
Notes:Nutritional status of non-pregnant women of reproductive age
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:4690
Area covered:National
References:National Institute of Population Studies - NIPS/Pakistan and ICF. 2019. Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18. Islamabad, Pakistan, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NIPS and ICF.
Notes:Demographic Health Survey data includes ever married women aged 15-49 years only and may include males aged 15-59.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:4,767
Area covered:National
References:Janjua et al 2015. Association of Household and Community Socioeconomic Position and Urbanicity with Underweight and Overweight among Women in Pakistan. PLoS ONE 10(4). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122314
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:3916
Area covered:National
References:Prevalence and Sociodemographic Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Pakistani Adults. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118000/ (last accessed 06.06.2022)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:6147
Area covered:National
References:Prevalence and Sociodemographic Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Pakistani Adults. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118000/ (last accessed 06.06.2022)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2021

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:3551
Area covered:National
References:The Current Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Associated with Demographic Factors among Pakistan School-Aged Children and Adolescents — An Empirical Cross-Sectional Study. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/19/18/11619
Cutoffs:CDC US 2000 BMI charts

Overweight/obesity by region

Women, 2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:123092
Area covered:National
References:Pakistan National Nutrition Survey 2018 https://www.unicef.org/pakistan/media/2826/file/National%20Nutrition%20S (Accessed 03.11.20)
Notes:Nutritional status of non-pregnant women of reproductive age
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:1982
Area covered:Regional - Punjab
References:National Institute of Population Studies - NIPS/Pakistan and ICF. 2019. Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18. Islamabad, Pakistan, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NIPS and ICF.
Notes:Demographic Health Survey data includes ever married women aged 15-49 years only and may include males aged 15-59.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:898
Area covered:Regional - Sindh
References:National Institute of Population Studies - NIPS/Pakistan and ICF. 2019. Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18. Islamabad, Pakistan, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NIPS and ICF.
Notes:Demographic Health Survey data includes ever married women aged 15-49 years only and may include males aged 15-59.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:576
Area covered:Regional - Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
References:National Institute of Population Studies - NIPS/Pakistan and ICF. 2019. Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18. Islamabad, Pakistan, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NIPS and ICF.
Notes:Demographic Health Survey data includes ever married women aged 15-49 years only and may include males aged 15-59.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:175
Area covered:Regional - Balochistan
References:National Institute of Population Studies - NIPS/Pakistan and ICF. 2019. Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18. Islamabad, Pakistan, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NIPS and ICF.
Notes:Demographic Health Survey data includes ever married women aged 15-49 years only and may include males aged 15-59.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:4,767
References:Janjua et al 2015. Association of Household and Community Socioeconomic Position and Urbanicity with Underweight and Overweight among Women in Pakistan. PLoS ONE 10(4). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122314
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2021

Survey type:Measured
Age:9-17
Sample size:3551
Area covered:National
References:The Current Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Associated with Demographic Factors among Pakistan School-Aged Children and Adolescents — An Empirical Cross-Sectional Study. Available at: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/19/18/11619
Cutoffs:CDC US 2000 BMI charts

Boys, 2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:10-19
Area covered:National
References:Pakistan National Nutrition Survey 2018 https://www.unicef.org/pakistan/media/2826/file/National%20Nutrition%20S (Accessed 03.11.20)
Notes:BMI-for-age cut-offs also available
Cutoffs:WHO

Girls, 2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:10-19
Area covered:National
References:Pakistan National Nutrition Survey 2018 https://www.unicef.org/pakistan/media/2826/file/National%20Nutrition%20S (Accessed 03.11.20)
Notes:BMI-for-age cut-offs also available
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-12
Sample size:1860
Area covered:Lahore, Pakistan
References:Mushtaq MU, Gull S, Abdullah HM et al. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children. BMC Public Health, 2011: Volume 11, Number 1, Page 1
Notes:Overweight (> + 1SD) and obesity (> + 2SD) were defined using the World Health Organization child growth reference 2007.
Cutoffs:WHO

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Women, 2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:123092
Area covered:National
References:Pakistan National Nutrition Survey 2018 https://www.unicef.org/pakistan/media/2826/file/National%20Nutrition%20S (Accessed 03.11.20)
Notes:Non-pregnant women
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:4690
Area covered:National
References:National Institute of Population Studies - NIPS/Pakistan and ICF. 2019. Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2017-18. Islamabad, Pakistan, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NIPS and ICF. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR354/FR354.pdf (last accessed 06.06.2022)
Notes:Demographic Health Survey data includes ever married women aged 15-49 years only and may include males aged 15-59.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:4,767
Area covered:National
References:Janjua et al 2015. Association of Household and Community Socioeconomic Position and Urbanicity with Underweight and Overweight among Women in Pakistan. PLoS ONE 10(4). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122314
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Boys, 2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:10-19
Area covered:National
References:Pakistan National Nutrition Survey 2018 https://www.unicef.org/pakistan/media/2826/file/National%20Nutrition%20S (Accessed 03.11.20)
Notes:BMI-for-age cut-offs also available
Cutoffs:WHO

Girls, 2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:10-19
Area covered:National
References:Pakistan National Nutrition Survey 2018 https://www.unicef.org/pakistan/media/2826/file/National%20Nutrition%20S (Accessed 03.11.20)
Notes:BMI-for-age cut-offs also available
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-12
Sample size:1860
Area covered:Subnational - Lahore
References:Mushtaq MU, Gull S, Abdullah HM, Shahid U, Shad MA, Akram J. Prevalence and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity among Pakistani primary school children. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:724. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-724.
Notes:Overweight (> + 1SD) and obesity (> + 2SD) were defined using the World Health Organization child growth reference 2007.
Cutoffs:WHO

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Average daily frequency of carbonated soft drink consumption

Children, 2009-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system

Estimated per capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Prevalence of less than daily fruit consumption

Children, 2008-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Global School-based Student Health Surveys. Beal et al (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287. Sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily fruit consumption (% less-than-daily fruit consumption)

Prevalence of less than daily vegetable consumption

Children, 2008-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily vegetable consumption (% less-than-daily vegetable consumption)

Average weekly frequency of fast food consumption

Children, 2009-2015

Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

% Infants exclusively breastfed 0-5 months

Children, 2010-2019

Area covered:National
References:Pakistan 2018 National Nutrition Survey
Notes:See UNICEF website for further survey information. Available at : https://data.unicef.org/resources/dataset/infant-young-child-feeding/ (last accessed 28.9.21) Citation: United Nations Children’s Fund, Division of Data, Analysis, Planning and Monitoring (2021). Global UNICEF Global Databases: Infant and Young Child Feeding: Exclusive breastfeeding, New York, September 2021.
Definitions:% exclusively breastfed 0-5 months

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Breast cancer

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, breast, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, cervix uteri, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2021

Age:20-79
Area covered:National
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation.  IDF Diabetes Atlas, 10th edn. Brussels, Belgium:International Diabetes Federation, 2021. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Age-adjusted comparative prevalence of diabetes, %

Adults, 2019

Age:20-79
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th edn. Brussels,Belgium: 2019. Available at: https://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Total economic cost as % of GDP

Country comparisons

You can choose to compare this country’s data with the data for up to four other countries.

Policies, Interventions and Actions

Pakistan dietary guidelines for better nutrition

The country-specific guidelines were developed by the Ministry of Planning, development and reforms & Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations to meet the nutritional requirement of the population by taking into account local cooking methods, dietary practices and health situation of the country.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Planning, Development and Reforms
Linked document:Download linked document

Pakistan Multi-sectoral Nutrition Strategy 2018-2025

The goal of the strategy to help significantly and sustainably reduce the burden of malnutrition in the country with focus on most marginalized and disadvantage segments of the populations.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2018-2025
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government of Pakistan - Ministry of Planning, Development & Reform
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Ministry of Planning, Development & Reform and World Food Programme (2018). Pakistan Multi-sectoral nutrition strategy (PMNS 2018-25) - Pakistan, Islamabad, 2018

Pakistan Infant and Young Child Feeding Strategy, 2016- 2020

Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2016-2020
Target age group:Children
Linked document:Download linked document

Pakistan Diabetes Prevention Program (PDPP)

This Karachi-based intervention consists of culturally adjusted preventive strategies focusing on diet and physical activity in real-life settings.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Aga Khan University
References:International Diabetes Federation. https://www.idf.org/sites/default/files/attachments/2014_2_Ahmed.pdf (last accessed 2 March 2016)

GNPR 2016-17 (q7) Breastfeeeding promotion and/or counselling

WHO Global Nutrition Policy Review 2016-2017 reported the evidence of breastfeeding promotion and/or counselling (q7)

Categories:Evidence of Breastfeeding promotion or related activity
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Ministry of Health (information provided by the GINA progam)
Find out more:extranet.who.int
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en

No actions could be found for the above criteria.

Contextual factors

Disclaimer: These contextual factors should be interpreted with care. Results are updated as regularly as possible and use very specific criteria. The criteria used and full definitions are available for download at the bottom of this page.

Tap on a tick to find out more about policies influencing this factor.

Labelling

Is there mandatory nutrition labelling?Absent
Front-of-package labelling?Absent
Back-of-pack nutrition declaration?Absent
Color coding?Absent
Warning label?Absent

Regulation and marketing

Are there fiscal policies on unhealthy products?Absent
Tax on unhealthy foods?Absent
Tax on unhealthy drinks?Absent
Are there fiscal policies on healthy products?Absent
Subsidy on fruits?Absent
Subsidy on vegetables?Absent
Subsidy on other healthy products?Absent
Mandatory limit or ban of trans fat (all settings)?Absent
Mandatory limit of trans fats in place (all settings)? Absent
Ban on trans-fats or phos in place (all settings)? Absent
Are there any mandatory policies/marketing restrictions on the promotion of unhealthy food/drinks to children?Absent
Mandatory restriction on broadcast media?Absent
Mandatory restriction on non-broadcast media?Absent
Voluntary policies/marketing restrictions on the promotion of unhealthy food/drinks to children?Absent
Are there mandatory standards for food in schools?Absent
Are there any mandatory nutrient limits in any manufactured food products?Absent
Nutrition standards for public sector procurement?Absent

Political will and support

National obesity strategy or nutrition and physical activity national strategy?Absent
National obesity strategy?Absent
National childhood obesity strategy?Absent
Comprehensive nutrition strategy?Present
Comprehensive physical activity strategy?Absent
Evidence-based dietary guidelines and/or RDAs?Present
National target(s) on reducing obesity?Absent
Guidelines/policy on obesity treatment?Absent
Promotion of breastfeeding?Present

Monitoring and surveillance

Monitoring of the prevalence and incidence for the main obesity-related NCDs and risk factors?Present
Within 5 years?Present

Governance and resource

Multi-sectoral national co-ordination mechanism for obesity or nutrition (including obesity)?Present

Key

Present
Present (voluntary)
Incoming
Absent
Unknown

Last updated September 13, 2022

See more policies here

Download contextual factors as a PDF Contextual factors definitions

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