• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Economic impact
  • Policies
  • Contextual factors
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2020

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Health Survey of Statistics Netherlands (2020). Available at: https://opendata.cbs.nl/statline/#/CBS/nl/dataset/81565NED/table?ts=1620225801465. Last accessed: 05.05.21
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2019

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat 2019. Data available at https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 09.08.21)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:2017 - EUROSTAT Database http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_hch10&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2000-2003

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:15+
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat Yearbook 2006/07. A goldmine of statistical information. Available at https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/2995521/5059290/1-20022007-BP-EN.PDF.pdf/edab8c31-b9f3-4c8e-b4db-4137bd045efa?t=1414683510000 (last accessed 04.11.21)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1998-2002

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-59
Sample size:3691
Area covered:National
References:Visscher TLS, Viet AL, Kroesbergen HT and Seidell JC. (2006). Underreporting of BMI in adults and its effect on obesity prevalence estimations in the period 1998 to 2002. Obesity, 14(11): 2054 - 2063.
Notes:NB. More recent self report data available (2014). See overweight and obesity by age
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1993-1997

Survey type:Measured
Age:37-43
Sample size:4623
References:Visscher TLS, Kromhout D, Seidell J. Long term and recent time trends in the prevalence of obesity among Dutch men and women. IJO 2002;26:1218-24
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1987-1991

Survey type:Measured
Age:37-43
Sample size:7510
References:Visscher TLS, Kromhout D, Seidell J. Long term and recent time trends in the prevalence of obesity among Dutch men and women. IJO 2002;26:1218-24
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1976-1980

Survey type:Measured
Age:37-43
Sample size:17008
References:Visscher TLS, Kromhout D, Seidell J. Long term and recent time trends in the prevalence of obesity among Dutch men and women. IJO 2002;26:1218-24
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2020

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:4-12
Area covered:National
References:Health Survey of Statistics Netherlands (2020). Available at: https://opendata.cbs.nl/statline/#/CBS/nl/dataset/81565NED/table?ts=1620225801465. Last accessed: 05.05.21
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:10-12
Sample size:901
Area covered:National
References:Brug J, van Stralen MM, te Velde SJ, Chinapaw MJM, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. (2012) Differences in Weight Status and Energy-Balance Related Behaviors among Schoolchildren across Europe: The ENERGY-Project. PLoS ONE 7(4): e34742. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034742
Notes:IOTF International Cut Off Point Combined totals calculated by weighting by sample size
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2003

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-16
Sample size:90071
Area covered:National
References:van den Hurk K, van Buuren P, van Buuren S, Verkerk PH and HiraSing RA. (2007). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Netherlands in 2003 compared to 1980 and 1977. Archives Dis Child, 92: 992 - 995.
Notes:IOTF International Cut Off
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1997

Survey type:Measured
Age:4-16
Area covered:National
References:Katja van den Hurk, Paula van Dommelen, Stef van Buuren, Paul H Verkerk, Remy A HiraSing. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Netherlands in 2003 compared to 1980 and 1997. Arch Dis Child 2007;92:992–995. doi: 10.1136/adc.2006.115402
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3. Large national survey although size not specified
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1980

Survey type:Measured
Age:4-16
Area covered:National
References:van den Hurk K, van Buuren P, van Buuren S, Verkerk PH and HiraSing RA. (2007). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Netherlands in 2003 compared to 1980 and 1977. Archives Dis Child, 92: 992 - 995.
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3. Large national survey - sample size not specified.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by age and education

Adults, 2019

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat 2019. Available at https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 09.08.21).
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2019

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat 2019. Available at https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 09.08.21).
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2019

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat 2019. Available at https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 09.08.21).
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2017

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2017 - Education EUROSTAT Database http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_hch10&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2017 - Education EUROSTAT Database http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_hch10&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Overweight/obesity by education

Adults, 2020

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Health Survey of Statistics Netherlands (2020). Available at: https://opendata.cbs.nl/statline/#/CBS/nl/dataset/83021NED/table?ts=1520431117646. Last accessed: 05.05.21
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Notes:Less than primary, primary and lower secondary education (levels 0-2) Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (levels 3 and 4) Tertiary education (levels 5-8) Total sample size in EU = 35100 (Age 18+)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Notes:Less than primary, primary and lower secondary education (levels 0-2) Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (levels 3 and 4) Tertiary education (levels 5-8) Total sample size in EU = 35100 (Age 18+)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2013

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:25+
Area covered:National
References:Statistics Netherlands (CBS): http://statline.cbs.nl/StatWeb/publication/?VW=T&DM=SLEN&PA=81177ENG&LA=EN (last accessed on 26.5.15)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:10-12
Sample size:901
Area covered:National
References:Brug J, van Stralen MM, te Velde SJ et al. Differences in Weight Status and Energy-Balance Related Behaviors among Schoolchildren across Europe: The ENERGY-Project. PLoS ONE 2012;7 (4) e34742
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by age

Adults, 2020

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Health Survey of Statistics Netherlands (2020). Available at: https://opendata.cbs.nl/statline/#/CBS/nl/dataset/81565NED/table?ts=1620225801465. Last accessed: 05.05.21
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2019

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat 2019. Available at https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 09.08.21).
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2017 - EUROSTAT Database http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_hch10&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2013

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Statistics Netherlands (CBS): http://statline.cbs.nl/StatWeb/publication/?VW=T&DM=SLEN&PA=81177ENG&LA=EN (last accessed on 26.5.15)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2020

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Health Survey of Statistics Netherlands (2020). Available at: https://opendata.cbs.nl/statline/#/CBS/nl/dataset/81565NED/table?ts=1620225801465. Last accessed: 05.05.21
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2003

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:90071
Area covered:National
References:Katja van den Hurk, Paula van Dommelen, Stef van Buuren, Paul H Verkerk, Remy A HiraSing. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Netherlands in 2003 compared to 1980 and 1997' Arch Dis Child 2007;92:992-995.
Cutoffs:Other

Overweight/obesity by age and region

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Overweight/obesity by age and socio-economic group

Adults, 2019

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat 2019. Available at https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 09.08.21).
Notes:NB. Some age ranges missing due to insufficient data to display by age & income quintile
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2019

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat 2019. Available at https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 09.08.21).
Notes:NB. Some age ranges missing due to insufficient data to display by age & income quintile
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2019

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat 2019. Available at https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 09.08.21).
Notes:NB. Some age ranges missing due to insufficient data to display by age & income quintile
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Adults, 2020

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Health Survey of Statistics Netherlands (2020). Available at: https://opendata.cbs.nl/statline/#/CBS/nl/dataset/83021NED/table?ts=1520431117646. Last accessed: 05.05.21
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Notes:1st Quintile (lowest income), 5th Quintile (highest income) Please note where data = zero, there were insufficient data. Total sample number in EU: 35100 (Age 18+)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:2014 Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Notes:1st Quintile (lowest income), 5th Quintile (highest income) Please note where data = zero, there were insufficient data. Total sample number in EU: 35100 (Age 18+)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-10
Area covered:Regional - Amsterdam
References:Amsterdam Healthy Weight Programme. Review 2011-2017 Amsterdam Healthy Weight Programme. Available at: https://www.amsterdam.nl/sociaaldomein/aanpak-gezond-gewicht/amsterdam-healthy-weight-programme-0/#h66c45d7e-bfca-4788-8511-7f6754e688e1. Last accessed 06.05.21.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by ethnicity

Ethnic groups are as defined by publication of origin and are not as defined by WOF. In some instances ethnicity is conflated with nationality and/or race.

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-15
Sample size:77,058
Area covered:Regional - The Hague
References:Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith R., and Henriëtte Maassen van den Brink. “Ethnic Differences in Lifestyle and Overweight in the Netherlands*.” Obesity, vol. 15, no. 2, Feb. 2007, pp. 483–483, 10.1038/oby.2007.561. Available at: https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article/28/6/1023/5035077?login=true. Accessed 6 May 2021.
Definitions:Ethnic groups as defined by publication of origin.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by age and limited activity

Adults, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat 2014 available at https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/submitViewTableAction.do (last accessed 06.10.21)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat 2014 available at https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/submitViewTableAction.do (last accessed 06.10.21)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat 2014 available at https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/submitViewTableAction.do (last accessed 06.10.21)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Sugar consumption

Adults, 2016

References:Source: Euromonitor International
Definitions:Sugar consumption (Number of 500g sugar portions/person/month)

Estimated per capita sugar sweetened beverages intake

Adults, 2016

References:Source: Euromonitor International

Prevalence of at least daily carbonated soft drink consumption

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
References:World Health Organization. (2017). Adolescent obesity and related behaviours: Trends and inequalities in the who european region, 2002-2014: observations from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) WHO collaborative cross-national study (J. Inchley, D. Currie, J. Jewel, J. Breda, & V. Barnekow, Eds.). World Health Organization. Sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org
Notes:15-year-old adolescents
Definitions:Prevalence of at least daily carbonated soft drink consumption (% of at least daily carbonated soft drink consumption)

Prevalence of confectionery consumption

Adults, 2016

References:Source: Euromonitor International
Definitions:Prevalence of confectionery consumption (Number of 50g confectionery portions/person/month)

Prevalence of sweet/savoury snack consumption

Adults, 2016

References:Source: Euromonitor International
Definitions:Prevalence of sweet/savoury snack consumption (Number of 35g sweet/savoury snack portions/person/month)

Estimated per capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Prevalence of less than daily fruit consumption

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
References:Global School-based Student Health Surveys. Beal et al (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287. Sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily fruit consumption (% less-than-daily fruit consumption)

Prevalence of less than daily vegetable consumption

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily vegetable consumption (% less-than-daily vegetable consumption)

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Breast cancer

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, breast, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, cervix uteri, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2021

Age:20-79
Area covered:National
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation.  IDF Diabetes Atlas, 10th edn. Brussels, Belgium:International Diabetes Federation, 2021. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Age-adjusted comparative prevalence of diabetes, %

Adults, 2019

Age:20-79
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th edn. Brussels,Belgium: 2019. Available at: https://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Economic impact of overweight and obesity

Country comparisons

You can choose to compare this country’s data with the data for up to four other countries.

Policies, Interventions and Actions

Annex III to Regulation (EC) No 1925/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards trans fat, other than trans fat naturally occurring in fat of animal origin

Measures to limit or virtually eliminate industrially-produced trans fatty acids in food intended for the final consumer and/or for supply to retail. Adopted by The European Commission from April 2019. (Available in multiple languages)

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2019 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:The European Commission
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/36162 (last accessed 12.07.22)

The combined lifestyle intervention 2019

The combined lifestyle intervention 2019 part of the basic insurance. The Dutch Healthcare Authority (NZa) and the Netherlands Care Institute have set the frameworks for this; it focuses on reducing energy intake, increasing exercise and adding customized psychological interventions to support behavioral change. [PDF in Dutch].

Categories:Evidence of Multidisciplinary Intervention
Year(s):2019 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Menzis
Find out more:www.kngf.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://www.kngf.nl/vakgebied/programmas/beweegzorg-2018/gli-%E2%80%93-algemene-informatie.html (Accessed August 2019).

'Akkoord Preventie' (National prevention agreement 2018)

Includes a number of measures against overweight and obesity including healthier food in sport club and school canteens, healthier food in hospitals, changes to manufacturing of food to make it healthier and many more.

Categories (partial):Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action plan
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:MVO Nederland
Find out more:www.rijksoverheid.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:MVO Nederland. Available from: https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/onderwerpen/gezondheid-en-preventie/documenten/convenanten/2018/11/23/nationaal-preventieakkoord [Last Accessed 30 January 2019]. _x000D__x000D_ _x000D__x000D_ [Document in Dutch].

2018 Obesity guidelines for Paediatricians

Guidelines for treatment of childhood obesity for paediatricians [article in dutch].

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:van den Akker et al
Find out more:www.kindergeneeskunde-mca.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:van den Akker et al. Obesitas bij kinderen en adolescenten. Leidraad voor kinderartsen. Available from: http://www.kindergeneeskunde-mca.nl/images/stories/medische_protocollen/Obesitas-leidraad-voor-kinderartsen.pdf (Accessed August 2019).

2018 Specialised care path module for children with serious overweight

Care path for those with severe obesity. [Article in Dutch]

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Samen Gesond
Find out more:www.proeftuinovergewichtdenbosch.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://www.proeftuinovergewichtdenbosch.nl/UPLOAD/Documenten/Documenten%20proeftuin%202/2018-12-20%20Module%20gespecialiseerd%20zorgpad.pdf (Accessed August 2019).

BeweegKuur GLI (Combined Lifestyle Intervention)

A lifestyle intervention for those in a primary care setting, consisting of; healthier eating, more exercise and behavioral change.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:House for Movement
Find out more:gecombineerdeleefstijlinterventie.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://gecombineerdeleefstijlinterventie.nl/ [Accessed 20 March 2019].

CooL (Coaching on Lifestyle)

Combined lifestyle intervention consisting of a basic and a maintenance program involving; an intake interview, 2 individual interviews, 8 group meetings and a final interview. These ultimately aim to gradually improve lifestyle to achieve a sustainable lifestyle change with the goal of achieving; weight loss, improving physical fitness , health benefits and improving the quality of life.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Expertise center Lifestyle interventions
Find out more:www.leefstijlinterventies.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://www.leefstijlinterventies.nl/ [Accessed 20 March 2019].

Fun and Health Summer programme

A 5-month intensive intervention by The BootClub BV for obese children aged 9-16 involving various camp weeks with overnight stays. Programme involves lifestyle guidance, tailor-made approach, growth, reward and recognition and close involvement of parents.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:The BootClub
Find out more:www.loketgezondleven.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://www.loketgezondleven.nl/leefstijlinterventies/interventies-zoeken/1600023 [Accessed 20 March 2019].

Healthy weight programme 2018-2021

Aim to achieve a healthy weight for all 0-5 year olds in Amsterdam targeting children and parents by influencing social, physical, work, school environments,

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2018-2021
Target age group:Children
Organisation:City of Amsterdam
Find out more:www.amsterdam.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Gemeente Amsterdam. (2018) Amsterdam Healthy Weight Programme, Available from: https://www.amsterdam.nl/bestuur-organisatie/organisatie/sociaal/onderwijs-jeugd-zorg/blijven-wij-gezond/amsterdam-healthy/, [Available from: 22 November 2018]

National prevention strategy 2018

Includes measures against obesity amongst other things. Some obejectives include:_x000D__x000D_ From 2020 at least 2,500 sports clubs will offer their members and visitors healthier food in the canteen._x000D__x000D_ From 2020 at least 950 schools will offer their students and staff healthy food in the canteen._x000D__x000D_ From 2025, half of the hospitals will offer healthier food to patients, staff and visitors._x000D__x000D_ Manufacturers are going to reduce sugar content of soft drinks, sweets and dairy products healthier. _x000D__x000D_ From 2019, the central government, supermarkets and catering companies will make the Schijf van Vijf more famous in the Netherlands. So that people can opt for healthy food even better._x000D__x000D_ Those with overweight problems receive customized care and support. From 1 January 2019 the reimbursement for this Combined Lifestyle intervention will be included in the basic insurance ._x000D__x000D_ Sports clubs and gyms want to make their offer even more accessible to people who do not exercise enough or exercise.

Categories:Evidence of NCD strategy
Categories (partial):Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action plan
Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Rijksoverheid
Find out more:www.rijksoverheid.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Rijksoverheid. National prevention agreement. Available from: https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/convenanten/2018/11/23/nationaal-preventieakkoord [Accessed 31 July 2019].

Dutch exercise guidelines

In 2017, the Dutch Independent scientific advisory body to government and parliament released their Dutch exercise guidelines.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
References:https://www.gezondheidsraad.nl/documenten/adviezen/2017/08/22/beweegrichtlijnen-2017

Fitcoach lifestyle plan

The intervention is aimed at inactive and low-activity and overweight and obese people. Includes a 4-phase plan including; ??nutrition, exercise and motivation to change lifestyle .

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Categories (partial):Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:EFAA
Find out more:www.loketgezondleven.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://www.loketgezondleven.nl/leefstijlinterventies/interventies-zoeken/1402850 [Accessed 20 March 2019].

LEFF (Lifestyle, Energy, Fun & Friends)

Dutch version of the UK MEND program (Mind, Exercise, Nutrition, Do it!). A combined lifestyle intervention in which families work in groups for 10 weeks on healthy eating and exercise (aimed at 7-12 year olds). The main aims are for the children to achieve a healthier diet and exercise pattern to improve the generic and weight-related quality of life and to reduce gender.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Healthy Youth Foundation
Find out more:www.start-leff.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: http://www.start-leff.nl [Accessed 20 March 2019].

School Fruit, Vegetables and Milk Scheme

"Applicable since 1 August 2017, the EU school fruit, vegetables and milk scheme combines two previous schemes (the school fruit and vegetables scheme and the school milk scheme) under a single legal framework for more efficiency and an enhanced focus on health and educational. The scheme supports the distribution of products, educational measures and information measures. The scheme supports the distribution of fruit, vegetables, milk and certain milk products to schoolchildren, from nursery to secondary school. EU countries approve a list of products (in collaboration with their health and nutrition authorities) which will help achieve the schemes objective of helping children to follow a healthy diet. Priority is for fresh fruit and vegetables and for plain milk. In order to support a varied diet and/or specific nutritional needs, EU countries may also make processed fruit and vegetables such as juices and soups and certain milk products such as yoghurt and cheese, available. Additionally, under stricter conditions, milk-based drinks may be included." - EU Commission

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Organisation:European Commission
Find out more:ec.europa.eu
References:https://ec.europa.eu/info/food-farming-fisheries/key-policies/common-agricultural-policy/market-measures/school-fruit-vegetables-and-milk-scheme/school-scheme-explained_en

SLIMMER

24 month nutrition and exercise programme aiming to improve the lifestyle of those at risk of or with obesity and prevent development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Categories (partial):Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action plan
Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:GGD North and East Gelderland
Find out more:www.ggdnog.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://www.ggdnog.nl/slimmer [Accessed 20 March 2019].

GNPR 2016-2017: Infant and young child nutrition - Breastfeeding promotion and/or counselling

This programme was reported by countries for the 2nd WHO Global Nutrition Policy Review 2016-2017 module on actions related to infant and young child nutrition. Information provided by WHO GINA Programme.

Categories:Evidence of Breastfeeding promotion or related activity
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Find out more:extranet.who.int
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en

Regulations on fat products 2016

Regulations on fat products for manufacturers.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Official Legal Portal
Find out more:wetten.overheid.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Information provided with kind permission of GINA (Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action) https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/sites/default/files/NLD%202016%20Regulations%20on%20fat%20products.pdf.

SMARTsize

A book, an interactive website, a home screener and a cooking course all aiming to reduce energy intake by altering portion size, preparing meals / products with a low energy density and addressing environmental influences that encourage overeating.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:VU - Health Sciences department
Find out more:www.loketgezondleven.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://www.loketgezondleven.nl/leefstijlinterventies/interventies-zoeken/1600172 [Last Accessed 20 March 2019]

Dutch Dietary Guidelines

Food-based dietary guidelines which were updated 2015-2016

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Netherlands Nutrition Center
Linked document:Download linked document

Exercise Cure (BeweegKuur)

A primary care combined lifestyle intervention for those with a weight-related health risk. Consists of exercise and nutrition programmes.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:House for Movement
Find out more:www.loketgezondleven.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://www.loketgezondleven.nl/leefstijlinterventies/interventies-zoeken/1402397 [Accessed 20 March 2019].

Physically active school lessons

Incorporating physical activity in normal academic lessons at 12 schools in the Netherlands (e.g. during maths, English etc) with the aim to reduce overweight/obesity and improve fitness

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Categories (partial):Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Greef et al (2016)
Find out more:onlinelibrary.wiley.com
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Greef, W.D, Hartman, E, Mullender-Wijnsma, M.J, Bosker, R.J, Doolaard, S. and Visscher, C ‘Effect of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness in Primary School Children’, Journal of School and Health, 86(5), pp. 346-352.

Regular coordinating meeting of managers on food and nutrition

In 2015, a regular coordinating meeting of managers on food and nutrition was established whereby managers of food related departments of the 4 ministries coordinate policy.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
References:https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/27065

The Netherlands Commercials Code: Commercials for food products 2015: Marketing of food products to children

The Stichting Reclame Code (SRC) deals with the self-regulation system of advertising in The Netherlands

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Dutch Consumer Association (CB)
Find out more:www.reclamecode.nl

B Fit

A programme of education and activities aimed at preventing and stabilising overweight in children

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2014 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Gelderland Sports Federation
Find out more:www.bfit.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://www.bfit.nl/ [Accessed 20 March 2019].

Dutch National Program Prevention 2014-2016

The National Prevention Programme 'Everything is Health' promotes healthier lifestyles, which includes taking enough exercise. Reducing obesity is one of the main aims of this programme.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Categories (partial):Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action plan
Year(s):2014-2016
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport. National Institute for Public Health and the Environment.
Find out more:www.government.nl
Linked document:Download linked document

European Union (EU) Action Plan on Childhood Obesity 2014-2020

EU Action plan. To contribute to halting the rise in overweight and obesity in children and young people (0-18 years) by 2020

Categories:Transnational Obesity Strategies/Policy or Action Plan
Year(s):2014-2020
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Ministry of Health
Find out more:ec.europa.eu
Linked document:Download linked document
References:EU Action Plan on Childhood Table of contents [Internet]. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/nutrition_physical_activity/docs/childhoodobesity_actionplan_2014_2020_en.pdf ‌

RealFit

Combination of exercise and nutrition lessons for children aiming to reduce or stabilize their weight.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Categories (partial):Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action plan
Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2014 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:House for movement
Find out more:www.realfit.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: www.realfit.nl [Accessed 20 March 2019].

Healthy arrangement of Gageldonk-West

Aims to increase physical activity levels of low SES area inhabitants by changing the environment in a way that encourages activity.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:The municipality of Bergen op Zoom
Find out more:www.zonmw.nl

Netherlands Commodities Act Decree

Mandatory salt content restrictions have been in place in the Netherlands since the beginning of the 20th century. However, the Netherlands Commodities Act Decree was amended in 2012 to decrease the maximum salt content in certain bread & flour products. This was implemented in 2013.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
References:https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/default/files/nutrition_physical_activity/docs/salt_report1_en.pdf

Nice and Fit! Primary education

A 3 year long preventive intervention in which schools are guided to integrate healthy eating and exercise. The intervention focuses on stimulating a healthier diet and better quality and more exercise at school. Nice and Fit! BO works with ten different pillars that work together and independently.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Municipality of Rotterdam
Find out more:www.rotterdamlekkerfit.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: http://www.rotterdamlekkerfit.nl [Accessed 20 March 2019].

Price discounts significantly enhance fruit and vegetable purchases when combined with nutrition education: a randomized controlled supermarket trial.

The papers reviews the impact of reducting fruit and vegetable prices in the Netherlands in the context of health promotion.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Waterlander WE, de Boer MR, Schuit AJ, Seidell JC, Steenhuis IH. Price discounts significantly enhance fruit and vegetable purchases when combined with nutrition education: a randomized controlled supermarket trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(4):886–95

"Bewegen op recept"

'Exercise on prescription' is a Dutch programme carried out since 2012. It began in the municipality of Nieuwegein, however has been adopted by health centres and practices in municipalities across The Netherlands since. Health professionals can refer patients to "Bewegen op recept", where group physical activity sessions are used to promote healthy weight and physical activity. Neighbourhood sports coaches are responsible for running the community activities.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2012 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:SportID
Find out more:www.sportidnieuwegein.nl
Linked document:Download linked document

Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers DOiT

Educating 12-14 year olds on the importance of making the right dietary choices (avoiding high sugar, high fat drinks and foods), getting physical activity daily, reducing screen time. Also education on awareness of the obesogenic environment as well as parental support - helping to raise awareness of choosing the right foods and physical activity at home.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2011-2013
Target age group:Children
Organisation:CHRODIS (implementing good practices for chronic diseases)
Find out more:doitopschool.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Nassau et al (2014). The Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) cluster controlled implementation trial: intervention effects and mediators and moderators of adiposity and energy balance-related behaviours. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 11 (158).

EU Regulation 1169/2011

Passed in 2011, EU Regulation 1169/2011 on the Provision of Food Information to Consumers requires a list of the nutrient content of most pre-packaged food to be provided on the back of the pack from October 2011.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:European Parliament and the Council of the European Union
Find out more:eur-lex.europa.eu
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/22917 (last accessed 28.06.22)

Evaluation of the EU school milk and fruit scheme

European Court of Auditors (2011) Are the school milk and school fruit schemes effective? Special Report No 10. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Categories:Health Effectiveness Reviews (obesity related)
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:EUROPEAN COURT OF AUDITORS
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Information provided with kind permission of World Cancer Research Fund International from their NOURISHING framework www.wcrf.org/NOURISHING

Fitter Step by Step

Aims to improve physical activity levels and healthy nutrition in unemployed beneficiaries by increasing their participation in society.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:The Woerden Actief Foundation, the Health organization ‘Welzijn Woerden’, and the Municipality of Woerden.
Find out more:woerdenactief.nl

Guidelines for a healthy diet: the ecological perspective

These guidelines include specific recommendations of foods to be eaten on a daily basis for different population groups.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Health Council of the Netherlands
Find out more:www.voedingscentrum.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Netherlands Nutrition Centre

Putting it on in Groningen

Aims to level off obesity increase in low SES areas by optimising existing interventions and targeting health professionals.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:The Municipal Health Centre of Groningen and the Municipality of Groningen
Find out more:www.zonmw.nl

'AanTafel!' a Dutch intervention for obese young children

A multi-component, multi-disciplinary, family-based, parent-focused, tailored individually to children and families. They used a combintation of both group and individual sessions and a web-based learning module.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Evidence of Multidisciplinary Intervention
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Van Hoek et al 2017
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Van Hoek et al 2017. Development of a Dutch intervention for obese young children. Health Promot Int. 2017 Aug 1;32(4):624-635.

Exercise Garden

Aims to stimulate physical activity of adults and elderly by placing fitness equipment in an existing playground for children.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Municipality health service (GGD Brabant Zuid Oost)

Health Race Laarbeek

Aims to promote a healthy lifestyle for inhabitants of the city of Laarbeek by competing in a health contest organised by locals.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Find out more:www.gezondheidsrace.nl

The care standards Obesity

Obesity care standards outlining which care should be provided, how it should be organised and the quality requirements it must meet.

Categories (partial):Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Overweight Netherlands Partnership (PON)
Find out more:www.nvk.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Partnerschap Overgewicht Nederland (2010). Zorgstandaard Obesitas. Available from: https://www.nvk.nl/Portals/0/richtlijnen/obesitas%20zorgstandaard/obesitaszorgstandaard.pdf. [Accessed 14 December 2018].

The Toy Box Study

The Toy Box intervention is a multicomponent, kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention, focusing on the promotion of water consumption, healthy snacking, physical activity and the reduction/ breaking up of sedentary time in preschool children and their families.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2010-2014
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:EU funded multidisciplinary team project
Find out more:www.toybox-study.eu

Walk yourself healthy

Aims to improve the health of inhabitants of low SES areas in Eindhoven city by promoting physical activity and healthy nutrition.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Municipal Health Service (GGD) of Eindhoven

New-style Eating (Het Nieuwe Eten)

A campaign to encourage people to make step-by-step changes at their own speed.

Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2008 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Netherlands Nutrition Centre (part of the National Institute for Public Health)
Find out more:www.loketgezondleven.nl

Partnership Overweight Netherlands (PON)

The Partnership Overweight Netherlands (PON) was established as collaboration between 16 partners to facilitate the development and implementation of a chronic disease management model for children and adults with obesity.

Categories:Evidence of Multidisciplinary Intervention
Year(s):2008 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:The Partnership Overweight Netherlands (PON)
Find out more:www.partnerschapovergewicht.nl

Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of obesity in adults and children

Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of obesity.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2007 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Medical Scientific Council of the Quality Institute for Healthcare CBO
Find out more:www.partnerschapovergewicht.nl
References:Medical Scientific Council of the Quality Institute for Healthcare CBO. Conceptrichtlijn Diagnostiek en behandeling van obesitas bij volwassenen en kinderen. Available from: http://www.partnerschapovergewicht.nl/images/Organisatie/CBO_richtlijn_diagnostiek_behandeling_obesitas_08_1.pdf. [Accessed 14 December 2018].

EU health and nutrient claims regulation

Regulation nº 1924/2006 establishes EU-wide rules on the use of specified health and nutrient claims. The European Commission approves claims provided they are based on scientific evidence and accessible consumers. The European Food Safety Authority is responsible for evaluating the scientific evidence supporting health claims. Nutrition claims may only be used on food defined as "healthy" by a nutrient profile.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2006 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:European Commission
Linked document:Download linked document
References:https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A32006R1924

The Choices programme

The Dutch version of the Choices logo (Vinkje) is now confirmed as the single food choice logo for the Netherlands. Introduced in 2006 as a response to the WHO's call for food industry to take an active role in tackling the obesity problem.

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2006 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Choices International Federation
Find out more:www.hetvinkje.nl
References:Choices International Federation. http://www.choicesprogramme.org/ (last accessed 10 Feb 2016)

B.Slim move more.Eat healthy (BSlim)

Focuses on children of a healthy weight and overweight. Aims to prevent children becoming overweight by providing an integrated, tailor-made plan for each priority area, whereby both the lifestyle of people and the environment are affected.

Categories (partial):Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2005-2017
Target age group:Children
Organisation:GGD region Utrecht
Find out more:bslim.nu
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://bslim.nu/ [Accessed 20 March 2019].

Dutch Advertising Code for Food Products

Part of the Dutch Advertising Code: a self-regulating set of rules on advertising. The Dutch Advertising Code for Food Products was implemented in 2005 and updated in 2015. The code includes regulation on the advertisement of food to children, including: a ban on advertising to children under the age of 13 years on television & a ban on food advertising in schools.

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2005 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Find out more:www.foodnavigator.com
References:https://www.jstor.org/stable/24326164

Lekkerbek Family in balance

"Eindhoven created the 'Lekkerbek Family in balance' in 2005. This project involves young people and their parents in combating obesity. Most attention is paid to deprived areas. The program consists of a mix of activities in which various parties from the city are involved."

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2005 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:ZonMw
References:https://www.zonmw.nl/nl/onderzoek-resultaten/preventie/programmas/project-detail/gezonde-slagkracht/versterken-de-familie-lekkerbek-in-balans/

A front-of-pack nutrition logo: a quantitative and qualitative process evaluation in the Netherlands

Vyth, EL et al. (2009) A front-of-pack nutrition logo: a quantitative and qualitative process evaluation in the Netherlands. Journal of health communication, 14(7), 631-645

Categories:Health Effectiveness Reviews (obesity related)
Find out more:pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
References:Information provided with kind permission of World Cancer Research Fund International from their NOURISHING framework www.wcrf.org/NOURISHING

Balanz4kids

An intervention encouraging obese children and adolescents to change their lifestyle, under professional supervision. It is a multi-disciplincary approach over 24 weeks helping the children learn to make choices, undertake exercise and nutrition and gain self-confidence. Parents / guardians are also assisted with this lifestyle change, so that the child is supported to actually apply the changes in daily life.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Fysiocompany Station
Find out more:www.loketgezondleven.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://www.loketgezondleven.nl/leefstijlinterventies/interventies-zoeken/1600135 [Accessed 20 March 2019].

Buy Healthy Cook healthy

A course designed for those with a low socio-economic status to prevent obesity and encourage healthier eating and drinking. The participants learn how to buy and prepare tasty and inexpensive healthy food.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:GGD Amsterdam
Find out more:www.loketgezondleven.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://www.loketgezondleven.nl/leefstijlinterventies/interventies-zoeken/1401357 [Accessed 20 March 2019].

GNPR 2016-17 (q7) Breastfeeeding promotion and/or counselling

WHO Global Nutrition Policy Review 2016-2017 reported the evidence of breastfeeding promotion and/or counselling (q7)

Categories:Evidence of Breastfeeding promotion or related activity
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Ministry of Health (information provided by the GINA progam)
Find out more:extranet.who.int
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en

Healthy eating works better

An intervention ensuring more vitality, fitness, job satisfaction and a safer working environment by encouraging employees to eat healthily. Aims to increase nutrition knowledge, mindful eating and encouraging a healthier range of nutrition at work. The overall objective is to improve eating habits of employees to reduce physical complaints and fatigue, improve health and safety and increase productivity and job satisfaction.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Enerjoy
Find out more:ener-joy.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://ener-joy.nl/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Voedingsprogramma.png [Accessed 20 March 2019].

Interdisciplinary Theory- and Evidence-Based Intervention to Prevent Childhood Obesity

An intervention study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an evidence-based obesity prevention programme on body composition and physical activity of adolescents in schools.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Hoor et al.
Find out more:www.frontiersin.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Hoor et al 2017. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of an Interdisciplinary Theory- and Evidence-Based Intervention to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Theoretical and Methodological Lessons Learned. Front. Public Health, doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00352

JOGG

JOGG is the Dutch acronym for Jongeren Op Gezond Gewicht (Young People at Healthy Weight). It is a programme that aims to create an environment that reinforces healthy lifestyle choices by children and teenagers.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Government
Find out more:jongerenopgezondgewicht.nl

Kids4Fit

12-week multidisciplinary intervention for overweight and obese children in deprived areas, consisting of group sessions (8–12 children) provided by a physiotherapist, a dietitian and child psychologist. The exercise component aimed to activate the child and stimulate them to join a sports club. The dietitian sessions focused on healthy eating behaviour and physical activity, with special attention given to eating breakfast, avoiding sugary drinks, limiting screen time and increasing daily physical activity. Psychologist settings aimed to improve the child’s self-image

Categories:Evidence of Multidisciplinary Intervention
Target age group:Children
Find out more:academic.oup.com
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Middelkoop M, Ligthart K.A.M, Paulis W.D,Teeffelen J.V, Kornelisse, K and Koes BW.A multidisciplinary intervention programme for overweight and obese children in deprived areas. Family Practice. 2017;34(6); pp. 702–707.

NCD targets for the Netherlands

The Netherlands' NCD targets include: • Reduce the percentage of overweight young people from 13.5% to 9.1% or less in 2040 • Reduce the percentage of obese young people from 2.8% to 2.3% or less in 2040 • Reduce the percentage of overweight adults from 48.7% to 38% or less in 2040 • Reduce the percentage of obese adults from 14.5% to 7.1% or less in 2040

Categories:Evidence of NCD strategy
References:https://extranet.who.int/ncdccs/Data/NLD_Netherlands_NCD_targets_2019.pdf

NL Active lifestyle programme

A 6-month lifestyle program for overweight adults. Involves weekly contact with a movement expert, 24/7 digital coaching via an activity tracker and training in nutrition, exercise and lifestyle.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:NL Active
Find out more:www.loketgezondleven.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: https://www.loketgezondleven.nl/leefstijlinterventies/interventies-zoeken/1402406 [Accessed 20 March 2019].

Salt reductions in some foods in the Netherlands: monitoring of food composition and salt intake

Temme EHM et al. (2017) Salt reductions in some foods in the Netherlands: monitoring of food composition and salt intake. Nutrients, 9(7), 791.

Categories:Health Effectiveness Reviews (obesity related)
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
References:Information provided with kind permission of World Cancer Research Fund International from their NOURISHING framework www.wcrf.org/NOURISHING

The Socially Responsible Procurement (MVI)

The Socially Responsible Procurement (MVI) rules apply to procurement by public organisations for catering, which include criteria with regard to nutrition. The MVI criteria tool is a user-friendly means for (government) organizations to view the criteria for socially responsible purchasing online. Government organizations can determine themselves how high their goals should be. The MVI criterion tool presents the criteria for socially responsible procurement on 3 levels: basic (1 leaf), significant (2 leaves) and ambitious (3 leaves). The national government reviews the criteria every year and refines them where necessary.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
References:https://policydatabase.wcrf.org/level_one?page=nourishing-level-one#step2=6#step3=338

What is your style

An after-school multidisciplinary intervention program for overweight children. Children take nutrition and exercise classes and are coached to a healthier lifestyle.

Categories:Evidence of Multidisciplinary Intervention
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Health bv
Find out more:www.workoutwijs.nl
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: http://www.workoutwijs.nl [Accessed 20 March 2019].

No actions could be found for the above criteria.

Contextual factors

Disclaimer: These contextual factors should be interpreted with care. Results are updated as regularly as possible and use very specific criteria. The criteria used and full definitions are available for download at the bottom of this page.

Tap on a tick to find out more about policies influencing this factor.

Labelling

Is there mandatory nutrition labelling?Present
Front-of-package labelling?Absent
Back-of-pack nutrition declaration?Present
Color coding?Absent
Warning label?Absent

Regulation and marketing

Are there fiscal policies on unhealthy products?Absent
Tax on unhealthy foods?Absent
Tax on unhealthy drinks?Absent
Are there fiscal policies on healthy products?Absent
Subsidy on fruits?Absent
Subsidy on vegetables?Absent
Subsidy on other healthy products?Absent
Mandatory limit or ban of trans fat (all settings)?Present
Mandatory limit of trans fats in place (all settings)? Present
Ban on trans-fats or phos in place (all settings)? Absent
Are there any mandatory policies/marketing restrictions on the promotion of unhealthy food/drinks to children?Present
Mandatory restriction on broadcast media?Present
Mandatory restriction on non-broadcast media?Present
Voluntary policies/marketing restrictions on the promotion of unhealthy food/drinks to children?Absent
Are there mandatory standards for food in schools?Absent
Are there any mandatory nutrient limits in any manufactured food products?Present
Nutrition standards for public sector procurement?Present

Political will and support

National obesity strategy or nutrition and physical activity national strategy?Present
National obesity strategy?Present
National childhood obesity strategy?Absent
Comprehensive nutrition strategy?Present
Comprehensive physical activity strategy?Present
Evidence-based dietary guidelines and/or RDAs?Present
National target(s) on reducing obesity?Present
Guidelines/policy on obesity treatment?Present
Promotion of breastfeeding?Present

Monitoring and surveillance

Monitoring of the prevalence and incidence for the main obesity-related NCDs and risk factors?Present
Within 5 years?Present

Governance and resource

Multi-sectoral national co-ordination mechanism for obesity or nutrition (including obesity)?Present

Key

Present
Present (voluntary)
Incoming
Absent
Unknown

Last updated September 13, 2022

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Download contextual factors as a PDF Contextual factors definitions

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