• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Economic impact
  • Policies
  • Contextual factors
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:5429
Area covered:National
References:Reanalysis of NHANES 2017/18 by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis World Obesity Federation
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:5406
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Notes:Weighted
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:5455
Area covered:National
References:Flegal KM, Kruszon-Moran D, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Trends in Obesity Among Adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. JAMA. 2016;315(21):2284-2291. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.6458.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:5181
Area covered:National
References:Ruopeng An, “Prevalence and Trends of Adult Obesity in the US, 1999–2012”, ISRN Obesity, vol. 2014, Article ID 185132, 6 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/185132
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2009-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:5926
Area covered:National
References:NHANES Survey - Published in Flegal KM, Carrolll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of Obesity and Trends in the Distribution of Body Mass Index Among US Adults, 1999-2010. JAMA Published online January 17, 2012. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.39
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2007-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:5555
Area covered:National
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL and Curtin LR. (2010). Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. Journal of the American Medical Association, 303 (3): 235 - 241.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2003-2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:4431
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA,Tabak CJ, & Flegal KM. (2006). Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol 295(13):1549 - 1555.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2003

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549-1555
Notes:1999-2000, 2001-2, 2003-4
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2001-2002

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549-1555
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549-1555
Notes:1999-2000, 2001-2, 2003-4
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1999-2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
Sample size:3601
References:Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1999

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549-1555
Notes:1999-2000, 2001-2, 2003-4
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1991

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity (1998);22:39-47
Notes:1971-74 (marked as 1973), 1988-94 marked as 1991
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1988-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity (1998);22:39-47
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1976

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity (1998);22:39-47
Notes:1971-74 (marked as 1973), 1988-94 marked as 1991
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1973

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity (1998);22:39-47
Notes:1971-74 (marked as 1973), 1988-94 marked as 1991
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1971-1974

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity (1998);22:39-47
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1960

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity (1998);22:39-47
Notes:1971-74 (marked as 1973), 1988-94 marked as 1991
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1960-1962

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity (1998);22:39-47
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2086
Area covered:National
References:Reanalysis of NHANES 2017/18 by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis World Obesity Federation
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2398
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Notes:Weighted
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:1927
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Notes:Sample size based on 5-9yrs, 13-17yrs IOTF International Cut off
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-11
Sample size:1268
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA (2014)26;311(8):806-14.
Notes:85th & 95th Centile CDC cut off
Cutoffs:CDC

Children, 2009-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2435
Area covered:National
References:NHANES IASO analysis
Notes:IOTF cut off (monthly)
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2003-2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-17
Sample size:2613
Area covered:National
References:Lobstein T, Jackson - Leach R. Child overweight and obesity in the USA: prevalence rates according to IOTF definitions. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2007;2(1):62-4.
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2001-2002

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-11
Sample size:4258
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549-1555
Notes:Child Cut-Off: 85/95 Centile (see paper for further details)
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 1999-2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-11
Sample size:4018
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549-1555
Notes:Cut-off point: 85/95 Centile (see paper for further details)
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 1988-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-17
Sample size:6108
References:Wang Y, Monteiro C, Popkin B. Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China, and Russia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;75:971-7
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1971-1974

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-17
Sample size:4471
References:Wang Y, Monteiro C, Popkin B. Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China, and Russia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;75:971-7
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3
Cutoffs:IOTF

Infants, 2017-2018

Age:0-5
References:NHANES: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017-2018. Hyattsville, United States: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Notes:UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Expanded Database: Overweight (Survey Estimates), May 2023, New York. For more information about the methodology, please consult https://data.unicef.org/resources/jme-2023-country-consultations/
Definitions:=>+SD

Infants, 2015-2016

Age:0-5
References:NHANES: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2015-2016. Hyattsville, United States: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Notes:UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Expanded Database: Overweight (Survey Estimates), May 2023, New York. For more information about the methodology, please consult https://data.unicef.org/resources/jme-2023-country-consultations/
Definitions:=>+SD

Infants, 2013-2014

Age:0-5
References:NHANES: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, [2013-14]
Notes:UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Expanded Database: Overweight (Survey Estimates), May 2023, New York. For more information about the methodology, please consult https://data.unicef.org/resources/jme-2023-country-consultations/
Definitions:=>+SD

Infants, 2011-2012

Age:0-5
References:NHANES: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, [2011-12]
Notes:UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Expanded Database: Overweight (Survey Estimates), May 2023, New York. For more information about the methodology, please consult https://data.unicef.org/resources/jme-2023-country-consultations/
Definitions:=>+SD

Infants, 2009-2010

Age:0-5
References:NHANES: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, [2009-10]
Notes:UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Expanded Database: Overweight (Survey Estimates), May 2023, New York. For more information about the methodology, please consult https://data.unicef.org/resources/jme-2023-country-consultations/
Definitions:=>+SD

Infants, 2007-2008

Age:0-5
References:NHANES: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, [2007-08]
Notes:UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Expanded Database: Overweight (Survey Estimates), May 2023, New York. For more information about the methodology, please consult https://data.unicef.org/resources/jme-2023-country-consultations/
Definitions:=>+SD

Infants, 2005-2006

Age:0-5
References:NHANES: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, [2005-06]
Notes:UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Expanded Database: Overweight (Survey Estimates), May 2023, New York. For more information about the methodology, please consult https://data.unicef.org/resources/jme-2023-country-consultations/
Definitions:=>+SD

Infants, 2003-2004

Age:0-5
References:NHANES: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, [2003-04]
Notes:UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Expanded Database: Overweight (Survey Estimates), May 2023, New York. For more information about the methodology, please consult https://data.unicef.org/resources/jme-2023-country-consultations/
Definitions:=>+SD

Infants, 2001-2002

Age:0-5
References:NHANES: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2002. Hyattsville, United States: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Notes:UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Expanded Database: Overweight (Survey Estimates), May 2023, New York. For more information about the methodology, please consult https://data.unicef.org/resources/jme-2023-country-consultations/
Definitions:=>+SD

Infants, 1999-1900

Age:0-5
References:NHANES: United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000. Hyattsville, United States: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Notes:UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Expanded Database: Overweight (Survey Estimates), May 2023, New York. For more information about the methodology, please consult https://data.unicef.org/resources/jme-2023-country-consultations/
Definitions:=>+SD

Infants, 1988-1994

Age:0-5
References:NHANES: Third national health and nutrition examination survey, 1988-94 (NHANES III). Vital Health Statistics 1994;32:1-2
Notes:UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates Expanded Database: Overweight (Survey Estimates), May 2023, New York. For more information about the methodology, please consult https://data.unicef.org/resources/jme-2023-country-consultations/
Definitions:=>+SD

Overweight/obesity by education

Men, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:5350 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:5350 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:5202
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:5202
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:9055
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:9055
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2007-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:CDC/NCHS, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Notes:Age-adjusted estimates are adjusted using three age groups: 25-44 years, 45-64 years, and 65 years and over. GED is General Educational Development high school equivalency diploma.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2007-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:CDC/NCHS, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Notes:Age-adjusted estimates are adjusted using three age groups: 25-44 years, 45-64 years, and 65 years and over. GED is General Educational Development high school equivalency diploma.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Boys, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2315
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Notes:Weighted
Cutoffs:Other

Girls, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2315
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Notes:Weighted
Cutoffs:Other

Boys, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-9
Sample size:1883
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Notes:IOTF Cut off used 13-17yrs also available
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-9
Sample size:1883
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Notes:IOTF Cut off used 13-17yrs also available
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:13-17
Sample size:1883 (5-9rs & 13-17yrs)
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Notes:IOTF Cut off used 5-9yrs also available
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:13-17
Sample size:1883 (5-9rs & 13-17yrs)
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Notes:IOTF Cut off used 5-9yrs also available
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 2007-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-19
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:CDC/NCHS, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Notes:Obesity among children 2-19 years of age, by sex of child and education level of head of household. Obesity is body mass index (BMI) at or above the sex- and age-specific 95th percentile BMI cutoff points from the 2000 CDC Growth Charts. GED is General Educational Development high school equivalency diploma.
Cutoffs:CDC

Girls, 2007-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-19
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:CDC/NCHS, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Notes:Obesity among children 2-19 years of age, by sex of child and education level of head of household. Obesity is body mass index (BMI) at or above the sex- and age-specific 95th percentile BMI cutoff points from the 2000 CDC Growth Charts. GED is General Educational Development high school equivalency diploma.
Cutoffs:CDC

Overweight/obesity by age

Adults, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:5432 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:5406
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2011-2014

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2011–2014. NCHS data brief, no 219. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity among adults: United States, 2011–2012. NCHS data brief, no 131. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2013
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:2086 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:2088
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Notes:Weighted
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2011-2014

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2011–2014. NCHS data brief, no 219. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015
Notes:Obesity in children is defined as a BMI of greater than or equal to the age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the 2000 CDC growth charts.
Cutoffs:CDC

Children, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:3355
Area covered:National
References:CDC/NCHS, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Notes:Obesity is body mass index greater than or equal to the 95th percentile from the sex- and age-specific 2000 CDC Growth Charts.
Cutoffs:cdc

Overweight/obesity by region

Adults, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:Behavorial Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Found at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/prevalence-maps.html (last accessed 20th April 2016)
Notes:NOT NHANES States A - M (inclusive)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:Behavorial Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Found at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/prevalence-maps.html (last accessed 20th April 2016)
Notes:NOT NHANES States N-Z (inclusive)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Boys, 1999-2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-19
Sample size:15479
Area covered:National
References:Liu J, Jones SJ, Sun H, et al. Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for childhood obesity: An urban and rural comparison. Child Obes 2012;8:440–448
Notes:Children were considered overweight and obese if their body mass index (BMI) was at or above the 85th percentile for age and gender according to growth charts from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).
Cutoffs:Other

Girls, 1999-2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-19
Sample size:15479
Area covered:National
References:Liu J, Jones SJ, Sun H, et al. Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for childhood obesity: An urban and rural comparison. Child Obes 2012;8:440–448
Notes:Children were considered overweight and obese if their body mass index (BMI) was at or above the 85th percentile for age and gender according to growth charts from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).
Cutoffs:Other

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Men, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:4638 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:4638 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:4904
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:4904
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-80
Sample size:9055
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Notes:Total Household earnings per annum
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-80
Sample size:9055
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Notes:Total Household earnings per annum
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2005-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Lamb MM, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. Obesity and socioeconomic status in adults: United States 1988–1994 and 2005–2008. NCHS data brief no 50. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010
Notes:Poverty income ratio (PIR): The ratio of household income to the poverty threshold after accounting for inflation and family size. In 2008, a PIR of 350% was equivalent to approximately $77,000 for a family of four; a PIR of 130% was equivalent to approximately $29,000 for a family of four.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2005-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Lamb MM, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. Obesity and socioeconomic status in adults: United States 1988–1994 and 2005–2008. NCHS data brief no 50. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010
Notes:Poverty income ratio (PIR): The ratio of household income to the poverty threshold after accounting for inflation and family size. In 2008, a PIR of 350% was equivalent to approximately $77,000 for a family of four; a PIR of 130% was equivalent to approximately $29,000 for a family of four.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Boys, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:1852 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:1852 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2208
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2208
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 2005-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-19
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Lamb MM, Carroll MD, Flegal, KM. Obesity and socioeconomic status in children: United States 1988-1994 and 2005-2008. NCHS data brief no 51. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010
Notes:Obesity defined as Body mass index (BMI) ≥ age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the 2000 CDC growth charts. Poverty income ratio (PIR): In 2008, a PIR of 350% was equivalent to approximately $77,000 for a family of four; a PIR of 130% was equivalent to approximately $29,000 for a family of four.
Cutoffs:CDC

Girls, 2005-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-19
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Lamb MM, Carroll MD, Flegal, KM. Obesity and socioeconomic status in children: United States 1988-1994 and 2005-2008. NCHS data brief no 51. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010
Notes:Obesity defined as Body mass index (BMI) ≥ age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the 2000 CDC growth charts. Poverty income ratio (PIR): In 2008, a PIR of 350% was equivalent to approximately $77,000 for a family of four; a PIR of 130% was equivalent to approximately $29,000 for a family of four.
Cutoffs:CDC

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Estimated per capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

% Infants exclusively breastfed 0-5 months

Children, 1998-2019

Area covered:National
References:United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017-2018. Hyattsville, United States: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Notes:See UNICEF website for further survey information. Available at : https://data.unicef.org/resources/dataset/infant-young-child-feeding/ (last accessed 28.9.21) Citation: United Nations Children’s Fund, Division of Data, Analysis, Planning and Monitoring (2021). Global UNICEF Global Databases: Infant and Young Child Feeding: Exclusive breastfeeding, New York, September 2021.
Definitions:% exclusively breastfed 0-5 months

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2373
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Women, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2373
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Breast cancer

Women, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2373
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2373
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Women, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2373
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2373
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Women, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2373
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2373
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Women, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2373
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2373
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Women, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2373
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2020

Age:20+
Area covered:National
References:Ferlay J, Ervik M, Lam F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Soerjomataram I, Bray F (2020). Global Cancer Observatory: Cancer Today. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from: https://gco.iarc.fr/today, accessed 10.01.2373
Definitions:Age-standardized indicence rates per 100 000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2021

Age:20-79
Area covered:National
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation.  IDF Diabetes Atlas, 10th edn. Brussels, Belgium:International Diabetes Federation, 2021. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Age-adjusted comparative prevalence of diabetes, %

Adults, 2019

Age:20-79
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th edn. Brussels,Belgium: 2019. Available at: https://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Economic impact of overweight and obesity

Country comparisons

You can choose to compare this country’s data with the data for up to four other countries.

Policies, Interventions and Actions

Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Treatment of Children and Adolescents With Obesity

In 2023, the American Academy of Pediatrics published its first-ever clinical practice guidelines on the evaluation and treatment of children and adolescents with overweight and obesity.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2023 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:American Academy of Pediatrics
Find out more:www.aap.org
Linked document:Download linked document

2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

The Dietary Guidelines is designed for policymakers and nutrition and health professionals to help all individuals and their families consume a healthy,nutritionally adequate diet

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2020-2025
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:USDA
Find out more:www.dietaryguidelines.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. 9th Edition. December 2020. Available at DietaryGuidelines.gov.

VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of Overweight and Obesity

Clinical Practice Guideline that gives recommendations for the management of adult overweight and obesity in the Department of Defense and Veteran Affairs Health Care systems.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2020 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Department of Veteran Affairs, Department of Defense
Find out more:www.healthquality.va.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of Overweight and Obesity, Department of Veteran Affairs, Department of Defense, Version 3.0. 2020.

Move Your Way Campaign

Move Your Way is the promotional campaign for the second edition of the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. The goal is to help people live healthier lives through increased physical activity.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2019 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Find out more:health.gov
References:https://health.gov/moveyourway

Behavioral Weight Loss Interventions to Prevent Obesity-Related Morbidity and Mortality in Adults US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on interventions (behavioral and pharmacotherapy) for weight loss or weight loss maintenance that can be provided in or referred from a primary care setting. Surgical weight loss interventions and nonsurgical weight loss devices (eg, gastric balloons) are considered to be outside the scope of the primary care setting.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:US Preventive Services Task Force
Find out more:www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Curry, S.J., Krist, A.H., Owens, D.K., Barry, M.J., Caughey, A.B., Davidson, K.W., Doubeni, C.A., Epling, J.W., Grossman, D.C., Kemper, A.R. and Kubik, M., 2018. Behavioral weight loss interventions to prevent obesity-related morbidity and mortality in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Jama, 320(11), pp.1163-1171.

City of Seattle - Sugar Sweetened beverage tax

Tax on sugar sweetened beverages and beverages with added sweeteners.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Seattle city council
Find out more:www.seattle.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Seattle City Council. Legistlative summary. Available from: https://www.seattle.gov/license-and-tax-administration/business-license-tax/other-seattle-taxes/sweetened-beverage-tax [Last accessed 09.09.20]

Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans provides evidence-based guidance to help Americans maintain or improve their health through physical activity. These are the 2nd edition of these guidelines.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Find out more:health.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2018.

San Francisco - Sugar Sweetened beverage tax

Effective January 1, 2018, there has been a general excise tax on Bottled Sugar-Sweetened Beverage, Syrup, or Powder in the City.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City and Country of San Francisco
Find out more:sftreasurer.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:City and County of San Francisco. https://sftreasurer.org/business/taxes-fees/sugary-drinks-tax#:~:text=The%20City%20imposes%20a%20one,beverages%2C%20syrups%2C%20and%20powders. [Last Accessed 09.09.20]

Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention of pediatric obesity: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

Recommendations on diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Styne, D.M, Arslanian, S.A, Connor, E.L, Farooqi, I.S, Murad, M.H, Silverstein, J.H, and Yanovski, J.A.
Find out more:academic.oup.com
References:Styne, D.M, Arslanian, S.A, Connor, E.L, Farooqi, I.S, Murad, M.H, Silverstein, J.H, and Yanovski, J.A. 2017. Pediatric Obesity—Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. The Journal of Clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 102 (3). pp. 709–757

Boulder, Colorado - Sugar Sweetened beverage tax

Excise tax requiring distributors of sugar-sweetened beverages to pay a tax applied to the drinks they distribute within the City of Boulder. This applies to drinks containing at least 5 grams of added caloric sweeteners (such as sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) per 12 fluid ounces. This includes soda, energy drinks and heavily pre-sweetened tea and the syrups and powders used to produce them.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City of Boulder Colorado
Find out more:bouldercolorado.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:City of Boulder Colorado. Sugar Sweetened Beverage tax. Available from: https://www-static.bouldercolorado.gov/docs/Chapter_16_SSB_Tax_-_final_form-1-201706231802.pdf?_ga=2.207604755.1404175956.1544784563-1014986894.1544784563. [Accessed 14 December 2018].

NCD Country Profiles 2018 (Obesity Targets)

The profiles also provide data on the key metabolic risk factors, namely raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose and obesity and National Targets on Obesity (as of 2017)

Categories:Evidence of Obesity Target
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:World Health Organisation
References:Noncommunicable diseases country profiles 2018. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

Philidelphia - Sugar Sweetened beverage tax

Tax applied to any non-alcoholic beverage, syrup, or other concentrate used to prepare a beverage that lists as an ingredient any form of caloric sugar-based sweetener, including, but not limited to sucrose, glucose, or high fructose corn syrup.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City of Philadelphia
Find out more:www.phila.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:City of Philidelphia (2017). CHAPTER 19-4100. SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGE TAX. Available from: https://www.phila.gov/media/20170209150802/CertifiedCopy16017601-1.pdf. [Accessed 14 December 2018].

Policy statement: Stigma Experienced by Children and Adolescents With Obesity

This policy statement discusses the prevalence andnegative effects of weight stigma on pediatric patients and their families. The statement provides 6 clinical practice and 4 advocacy recommendations regarding the role of pediatricians in addressing weight stigma. Recommendations include improving the clinical setting by modeling best practices for nonbiased behaviors and language; using empathetic and empowering counseling techniques, such as motivational interviewing, and addressing weight stigma and bullying in the clinic visit; advocating for inclusion of training and education about weight stigma in medical schools, residency programs, and continuing medical education programs; and empowering families to be advocates to address weight stigma in the home environment and school setting.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Pont, S.J, Puhl, R, Cook, S.R, Slusser, W SECTION ON OBESITY, THE OBESITY SOCIETY
Find out more:pediatrics.aappublications.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Pont, S.J, Puhl, R, Cook, S.R, Slusser, W SECTION ON OBESITY, THE OBESITY SOCIETY. 2017. Stigma Experienced by Children and Adolescents With Obesity. American academy of pediatrics. 140(6). DOI: e20173034.

Screening for Obesity in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

An update of the 2010 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for obesity in children 6 years and older.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:US Preventive Services Task Force, Grossman DC, Bibbins-Domingo K, Curry SJ, Barry MJ, Davidson KW, Doubeni CA, Epling JW Jr, Kemper AR, Krist AH, Kurth AE, Landefeld CS, Mangione CM, Phipps MG, Silverstein M, Simon MA, Tseng CW. Screening for Obesity in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 317(23). pp. 2417-2426.

Albanu - Sugar Sweetened beverage tax

City of Albany Ordinance 2016-02 enacts a one cent per ounce general tax, with no expiration date, on the distribution of sugar-sweetened beverages and sweeteners used to sweeten such drinks. The following are exempt: Sweeteners typically used by consumers and distributed to grocery stores; Drinks and sweeteners distributed to small retailers;Milk products, 100% juice, baby formula, alcohol, or drinks taken for medical reasons.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City of Albany
Find out more:www.albanyca.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:City of Albany. https://www.albanyca.org/departments/finance/sugar-sweetened-beverage-tax#:~:text=The%20measure%20approves%20City%20of,sweeten%20such%20drinks%2C%20but%20exempting%3A&text=Milk%20products%2C%20100%25%20juice%2C,drinks%20taken%20for%20medical%20reasons. [Last accessed 09.09.20]

Comprehensive Clinical Practice Guidelines for Medical Care of Patients with Obesity

These AACE/ACE evidence-based clinical practice guidelines address key aspects of obesity care: screening, diagnosis, clinical evaluation, treatment options, therapy selection, and treatment goal.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
Find out more:www.aace.com
Linked document:Download linked document
References:W. Timothy Garvey, Jeffrey I. Mechanick, Elise M. Brett, Alan J. Garber, Daniel L. Hurley, Ania M. Jastreboff, Karl Nadolsky, Rachel Pessah-Pollack, Raymond Plodkowski, and Reviewers of the AACE/ACE Obesity Clinical Practice Guidelines (2016) AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY COMPREHENSIVE CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR MEDICAL CARE OF PATIENTS WITH OBESITY. Endocrine Practice: July 2016, Vol. 22, No. Supplement 3, pp. 1-203.

National Physical Activity Plan

The Plan is a comprehensive set of policies, programs, and initiatives designed to increase physical activity in all segments of the U.S. population. The Plan aims to foster a national culture that supports physically active lifestyles. Its ultimate purpose is to improve health, prevent disease and disability, and enhance quality of life.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:National Physical Activity Plan Alliance
Find out more:www.physicalactivityplan.org
Linked document:Download linked document

Oakland - Sugar Sweetened beverage tax

General Tax of one cent ($0.01) per fluid ounce on the privilege of Distributing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Products in the City of Oakland

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City of Oakland
Linked document:Download linked document
References:City of Oakland. https://library.municode.com/ca/oakland/codes/code_of_ordinances?nodeId=TIT4REFI_CH4.52SUEEBEDITA_4.52.010SHTI [Last Accessed 09.09.20]

2015-2020 Edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

The Dietary Guidelines is designed for professionals to help all individuals ages 2 years and older and their families consume a healthy, nutritionally adequate diet.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2015-2020
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Find out more:health.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. December 2015. Available at http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/

Berkley, California - Sugar Sweetened beverage tax

The purpose of this Ordinance is to diminish the human and economic costs of diseases associated with the consumption of sugary drinks by discouraging their distribution and consumption in Berkeley through a tax. Specifically, the purpose of this ordinance is to levy an Excise Tax of one cent ($0.01) per fluid ounce on the distribution of sugar-sweetened beverage products in the City

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City of Berkley
Find out more:www.healthyberkeley.com
Linked document:Download linked document

Final Determination Regarding Partially Hydrogenated Oils (Removing Trans Fat)

Measures to limit or virtually eliminate industrially-produced trans fatty acids in food intended for the final consumer and/or for supply to retail. Based on the available scientific evidence and the findings of expert scientific panels, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) has made a final determination that there is no longer a consensus among qualified experts that partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs), which are the primary dietary source of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (IP–TFA) are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for any use in human food. (Available only in English language)

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:FDA
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/25331 (last accessed 16.08.22) Please note the GINA website has been replaced by the GIFNA database and the GINA link will no longer work. You will find this document by searching this new database: https://gifna.who.int/

Navajo Nation - Junk food tax

The Junk Food Tax applies to the sale of junk food when the transfer of ownership and/or risk of loss occur within the Navajo Nation. “Junk food” means ‘minimal-to-no nutritional value food” as defined by the Junk Food Statute, it includes: sugar-sweetened beverages, pre-packaged and non-pre-packaged snacks stripped of essential nutrients and high in salt, saturated fat and sugar including sweets, chips and crisps. The tax has been effective since April 1, 2015, at a rate of 2%.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Navajo Nation Council
Linked document:Download linked document

Pharmacological management of obesity: an endocrine Society clinical practice guideline

Clinical practice guidelines for the pharmacological management of obesity.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Apovian C.M, Aronne L.J, Bessesen D.H, McDonnell M.E, Murad M.H, Pagotto U, Ryan D.H, Still C.D; Endocrine Society.
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
References:Apovian CM, Aronne LJ, Bessesen DH, McDonnell ME, Murad MH, Pagotto U, Ryan DH, Still CD; Endocrine Society. Pharmacological management of obesity: an endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Feb;100(2):342-62. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-3415. Epub 2015 Jan 15. Erratum in: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 May;100(5):2135-6. PMID: 25590212.

The New York City Health Code

Article 81 of the New York City Health Code (addition of section 81.49) states that chain restaurants must put a warning label on menus and menu boards (a salt-shaker symbol) when dishes contain 2,300mg of sodium or more. It came into effect on 1 December 2015 and applies to food service establishments with 15 or more locations nationwide.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City of New York
Find out more:www1.nyc.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:City of New York. https://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/about/about-doh/health-code-and-rules.page [Last Accessed 09.09.20]

Choose Health LA

Choose Health LA is a local initiative of the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health to prevent and control chronic disease in Los Angeles County. It aims to improve nutrition, increasing physical activity and reduce obesity in LA County.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2014 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Los Angeles County Department of Public Health
Find out more:www.choosehealthla.com

Menu Labeling Requirements

Menu labeling requirements that apply to restaurants and similar retail food establishments that are part of a chain with 20 or more locations. Covered establishments must disclose the number of calories contained in standard items on menus and menu boards. For self-service foods and foods on display, calories must be listed in close proximity and clearly associated with the standard menu item.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2014 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Food and Drug Administration
Find out more:www.fda.gov