• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Economic impact
  • Policies
  • Contextual factors
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:5429
Area covered:National
References:Reanalysis of NHANES 2017/18 by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis World Obesity Federation
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:5406
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Notes:Weighted
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:5455
Area covered:National
References:Flegal KM, Kruszon-Moran D, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Trends in Obesity Among Adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. JAMA. 2016;315(21):2284-2291. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.6458.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:5181
Area covered:National
References:Ruopeng An, “Prevalence and Trends of Adult Obesity in the US, 1999–2012”, ISRN Obesity, vol. 2014, Article ID 185132, 6 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/185132
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2009-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:5926
Area covered:National
References:NHANES Survey - Published in Flegal KM, Carrolll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of Obesity and Trends in the Distribution of Body Mass Index Among US Adults, 1999-2010. JAMA Published online January 17, 2012. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.39
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2007-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:5555
Area covered:National
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL and Curtin LR. (2010). Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. Journal of the American Medical Association, 303 (3): 235 - 241.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2003-2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:4431
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA,Tabak CJ, & Flegal KM. (2006). Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol 295(13):1549 - 1555.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2003

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549-1555
Notes:1999-2000, 2001-2, 2003-4
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2001-2002

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549-1555
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549-1555
Notes:1999-2000, 2001-2, 2003-4
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1999-2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
Sample size:3601
References:Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1999

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549-1555
Notes:1999-2000, 2001-2, 2003-4
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1991

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity (1998);22:39-47
Notes:1971-74 (marked as 1973), 1988-94 marked as 1991
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1988-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity (1998);22:39-47
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1976

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity (1998);22:39-47
Notes:1971-74 (marked as 1973), 1988-94 marked as 1991
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1973

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity (1998);22:39-47
Notes:1971-74 (marked as 1973), 1988-94 marked as 1991
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1971-1974

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity (1998);22:39-47
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1960-1962

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity (1998);22:39-47
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1960

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-74
References:Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kuczmarski RJ, Johnson CL. Overweight and obesity in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity (1998);22:39-47
Notes:1971-74 (marked as 1973), 1988-94 marked as 1991
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2086
Area covered:National
References:Reanalysis of NHANES 2017/18 by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis World Obesity Federation
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2398
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Notes:Weighted
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:1927
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Notes:Sample size based on 5-9yrs, 13-17yrs IOTF International Cut off
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-11
Sample size:1268
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA (2014)26;311(8):806-14.
Notes:85th & 95th Centile CDC cut off
Cutoffs:CDC

Children, 2009-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2435
Area covered:National
References:NHANES IASO analysis
Notes:IOTF cut off (monthly)
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2003-2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-17
Sample size:2613
Area covered:National
References:Lobstein T, Jackson - Leach R. Child overweight and obesity in the USA: prevalence rates according to IOTF definitions. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2007;2(1):62-4.
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2001-2002

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-11
Sample size:4258
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549-1555
Notes:Child Cut-Off: 85/95 Centile (see paper for further details)
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 1999-2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-11
Sample size:4018
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA 2006;295(13):1549-1555
Notes:Cut-off point: 85/95 Centile (see paper for further details)
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 1988-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-17
Sample size:6108
References:Wang Y, Monteiro C, Popkin B. Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China, and Russia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;75:971-7
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1971-1974

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-17
Sample size:4471
References:Wang Y, Monteiro C, Popkin B. Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China, and Russia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;75:971-7
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by education

Men, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:5350 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:5350 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:5202
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:5202
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:9055
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:9055
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2007-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:CDC/NCHS, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Notes:Age-adjusted estimates are adjusted using three age groups: 25-44 years, 45-64 years, and 65 years and over. GED is General Educational Development high school equivalency diploma.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2007-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:CDC/NCHS, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Notes:Age-adjusted estimates are adjusted using three age groups: 25-44 years, 45-64 years, and 65 years and over. GED is General Educational Development high school equivalency diploma.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Boys, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2315
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Notes:Weighted
Cutoffs:Other

Girls, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2315
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Notes:Weighted
Cutoffs:Other

Boys, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-9
Sample size:1883
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Notes:IOTF Cut off used 13-17yrs also available
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-9
Sample size:1883
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Notes:IOTF Cut off used 13-17yrs also available
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:13-17
Sample size:1883 (5-9rs & 13-17yrs)
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Notes:IOTF Cut off used 5-9yrs also available
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:13-17
Sample size:1883 (5-9rs & 13-17yrs)
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Notes:IOTF Cut off used 5-9yrs also available
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 2007-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-19
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:CDC/NCHS, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Notes:Obesity among children 2-19 years of age, by sex of child and education level of head of household. Obesity is body mass index (BMI) at or above the sex- and age-specific 95th percentile BMI cutoff points from the 2000 CDC Growth Charts. GED is General Educational Development high school equivalency diploma.
Cutoffs:CDC

Girls, 2007-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-19
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:CDC/NCHS, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Notes:Obesity among children 2-19 years of age, by sex of child and education level of head of household. Obesity is body mass index (BMI) at or above the sex- and age-specific 95th percentile BMI cutoff points from the 2000 CDC Growth Charts. GED is General Educational Development high school equivalency diploma.
Cutoffs:CDC

Overweight/obesity by age

Adults, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:5432 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:5406
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity among adults: United States, 2011–2012. NCHS data brief, no 131. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2013
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2011-2014

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2011–2014. NCHS data brief, no 219. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:2086 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:2088
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Notes:Weighted
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2011-2014

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2011–2014. NCHS data brief, no 219. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015
Notes:Obesity in children is defined as a BMI of greater than or equal to the age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the 2000 CDC growth charts.
Cutoffs:CDC

Children, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:3355
Area covered:National
References:CDC/NCHS, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Notes:Obesity is body mass index greater than or equal to the 95th percentile from the sex- and age-specific 2000 CDC Growth Charts.
Cutoffs:cdc

Overweight/obesity by region

Adults, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:Behavorial Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Found at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/prevalence-maps.html (last accessed 20th April 2016)
Notes:NOT NHANES States N-Z (inclusive)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:Behavorial Risk Factor Surveillance System, CDC. Found at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/prevalence-maps.html (last accessed 20th April 2016)
Notes:NOT NHANES States A - M (inclusive)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Boys, 1999-2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-19
Sample size:15479
Area covered:National
References:Liu J, Jones SJ, Sun H, et al. Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for childhood obesity: An urban and rural comparison. Child Obes 2012;8:440–448
Notes:Children were considered overweight and obese if their body mass index (BMI) was at or above the 85th percentile for age and gender according to growth charts from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).
Cutoffs:Other

Girls, 1999-2006

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-19
Sample size:15479
Area covered:National
References:Liu J, Jones SJ, Sun H, et al. Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for childhood obesity: An urban and rural comparison. Child Obes 2012;8:440–448
Notes:Children were considered overweight and obese if their body mass index (BMI) was at or above the 85th percentile for age and gender according to growth charts from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).
Cutoffs:Other

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Men, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:4638 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:4638 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:4904
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:4904
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-80
Sample size:9055
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Notes:Total Household earnings per annum
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-80
Sample size:9055
Area covered:National
References:Data from NHANES 2013/14. Data reanalysed by Danielle Sharfman (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Rachel Jackson Leach on behalf of the World Obesity Federation
Notes:Total Household earnings per annum
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2005-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Lamb MM, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. Obesity and socioeconomic status in adults: United States 1988–1994 and 2005–2008. NCHS data brief no 50. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010
Notes:Poverty income ratio (PIR): The ratio of household income to the poverty threshold after accounting for inflation and family size. In 2008, a PIR of 350% was equivalent to approximately $77,000 for a family of four; a PIR of 130% was equivalent to approximately $29,000 for a family of four.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2005-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Lamb MM, Carroll MD, Flegal KM. Obesity and socioeconomic status in adults: United States 1988–1994 and 2005–2008. NCHS data brief no 50. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010
Notes:Poverty income ratio (PIR): The ratio of household income to the poverty threshold after accounting for inflation and family size. In 2008, a PIR of 350% was equivalent to approximately $77,000 for a family of four; a PIR of 130% was equivalent to approximately $29,000 for a family of four.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Boys, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:1852 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:1852 (unweighted)
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2017/18 Reanalysis by Rachel Jackson Leach, Jaynaide Powis, World Obesity Federation, March 2020
Notes:Weighted
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2208
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2208
Area covered:National
References:NHANES 2015/16. Analysis conducted by the World Obesity Federation, Caroline Litts, Fiona Montague & R Jackson-Leach 2017
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 2005-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-19
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Lamb MM, Carroll MD, Flegal, KM. Obesity and socioeconomic status in children: United States 1988-1994 and 2005-2008. NCHS data brief no 51. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010
Notes:Obesity defined as Body mass index (BMI) ≥ age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the 2000 CDC growth charts. Poverty income ratio (PIR): In 2008, a PIR of 350% was equivalent to approximately $77,000 for a family of four; a PIR of 130% was equivalent to approximately $29,000 for a family of four.
Cutoffs:CDC

Girls, 2005-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-19
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Ogden CL, Lamb MM, Carroll MD, Flegal, KM. Obesity and socioeconomic status in children: United States 1988-1994 and 2005-2008. NCHS data brief no 51. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010
Notes:Obesity defined as Body mass index (BMI) ≥ age- and sex-specific 95th percentile of the 2000 CDC growth charts. Poverty income ratio (PIR): In 2008, a PIR of 350% was equivalent to approximately $77,000 for a family of four; a PIR of 130% was equivalent to approximately $29,000 for a family of four.
Cutoffs:CDC

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Estimated per capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

% Infants exclusively breastfed 0-5 months

Children, 1998-2019

Area covered:National
References:United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2017-2018. Hyattsville, United States: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Notes:See UNICEF website for further survey information. Available at : https://data.unicef.org/resources/dataset/infant-young-child-feeding/ (last accessed 28.9.21) Citation: United Nations Children’s Fund, Division of Data, Analysis, Planning and Monitoring (2021). Global UNICEF Global Databases: Infant and Young Child Feeding: Exclusive breastfeeding, New York, September 2021.
Definitions:% exclusively breastfed 0-5 months

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Breast cancer

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, breast, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, cervix uteri, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2021

Age:20-79
Area covered:National
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation.  IDF Diabetes Atlas, 10th edn. Brussels, Belgium:International Diabetes Federation, 2021. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Age-adjusted comparative prevalence of diabetes, %

Adults, 2019

Age:20-79
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th edn. Brussels,Belgium: 2019. Available at: https://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Total economic cost as % of GDP

Country comparisons

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Policies, Interventions and Actions

2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

The Dietary Guidelines is designed for policymakers and nutrition and health professionals to help all individuals and their families consume a healthy,nutritionally adequate diet

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2020-2025
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:USDA
Find out more:www.dietaryguidelines.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. 9th Edition. December 2020. Available at DietaryGuidelines.gov.

VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of Overweight and Obesity

Clinical Practice Guideline that gives recommendations for the management of adult overweight and obesity in the Department of Defense and Veteran Affairs Health Care systems.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2020 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Department of Veteran Affairs, Department of Defense
Find out more:www.healthquality.va.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of Overweight and Obesity, Department of Veteran Affairs, Department of Defense, Version 3.0. 2020.

Move Your Way Campaign

Move Your Way is the promotional campaign for the second edition of the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. The goal is to help people live healthier lives through increased physical activity.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2019 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Find out more:health.gov
References:https://health.gov/moveyourway

Behavioral Weight Loss Interventions to Prevent Obesity-Related Morbidity and Mortality in Adults US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on interventions (behavioral and pharmacotherapy) for weight loss or weight loss maintenance that can be provided in or referred from a primary care setting. Surgical weight loss interventions and nonsurgical weight loss devices (eg, gastric balloons) are considered to be outside the scope of the primary care setting.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:US Preventive Services Task Force
Find out more:www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Curry, S.J., Krist, A.H., Owens, D.K., Barry, M.J., Caughey, A.B., Davidson, K.W., Doubeni, C.A., Epling, J.W., Grossman, D.C., Kemper, A.R. and Kubik, M., 2018. Behavioral weight loss interventions to prevent obesity-related morbidity and mortality in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Jama, 320(11), pp.1163-1171.

City of Seattle - Sugar Sweetened beverage tax

Tax on sugar sweetened beverages and beverages with added sweeteners.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Seattle city council
Find out more:www.seattle.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Seattle City Council. Legistlative summary. Available from: https://www.seattle.gov/license-and-tax-administration/business-license-tax/other-seattle-taxes/sweetened-beverage-tax [Last accessed 09.09.20]

Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans provides evidence-based guidance to help Americans maintain or improve their health through physical activity. These are the 2nd edition of these guidelines.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Find out more:health.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2018.

San Francisco - Sugar Sweetened beverage tax

Effective January 1, 2018, there has been a general excise tax on Bottled Sugar-Sweetened Beverage, Syrup, or Powder in the City.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City and Country of San Francisco
Find out more:sftreasurer.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:City and County of San Francisco. https://sftreasurer.org/business/taxes-fees/sugary-drinks-tax#:~:text=The%20City%20imposes%20a%20one,beverages%2C%20syrups%2C%20and%20powders. [Last Accessed 09.09.20]

Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention of pediatric obesity: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

Recommendations on diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Styne, D.M, Arslanian, S.A, Connor, E.L, Farooqi, I.S, Murad, M.H, Silverstein, J.H, and Yanovski, J.A.
Find out more:academic.oup.com
References:Styne, D.M, Arslanian, S.A, Connor, E.L, Farooqi, I.S, Murad, M.H, Silverstein, J.H, and Yanovski, J.A. 2017. Pediatric Obesity—Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. The Journal of Clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 102 (3). pp. 709–757

Boulder, Colorado - Sugar Sweetened beverage tax

Excise tax requiring distributors of sugar-sweetened beverages to pay a tax applied to the drinks they distribute within the City of Boulder. This applies to drinks containing at least 5 grams of added caloric sweeteners (such as sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) per 12 fluid ounces. This includes soda, energy drinks and heavily pre-sweetened tea and the syrups and powders used to produce them.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City of Boulder Colorado
Find out more:bouldercolorado.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:City of Boulder Colorado. Sugar Sweetened Beverage tax. Available from: https://www-static.bouldercolorado.gov/docs/Chapter_16_SSB_Tax_-_final_form-1-201706231802.pdf?_ga=2.207604755.1404175956.1544784563-1014986894.1544784563. [Accessed 14 December 2018].

NCD Country Profiles 2018 (Obesity Targets)

The profiles also provide data on the key metabolic risk factors, namely raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose and obesity and National Targets on Obesity (as of 2017)

Categories:Evidence of Obesity Target
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:World Health Organisation
References:Noncommunicable diseases country profiles 2018. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

Philidelphia - Sugar Sweetened beverage tax

Tax applied to any non-alcoholic beverage, syrup, or other concentrate used to prepare a beverage that lists as an ingredient any form of caloric sugar-based sweetener, including, but not limited to sucrose, glucose, or high fructose corn syrup.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City of Philadelphia
Find out more:www.phila.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:City of Philidelphia (2017). CHAPTER 19-4100. SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGE TAX. Available from: https://www.phila.gov/media/20170209150802/CertifiedCopy16017601-1.pdf. [Accessed 14 December 2018].

Policy statement: Stigma Experienced by Children and Adolescents With Obesity

This policy statement discusses the prevalence andnegative effects of weight stigma on pediatric patients and their families. The statement provides 6 clinical practice and 4 advocacy recommendations regarding the role of pediatricians in addressing weight stigma. Recommendations include improving the clinical setting by modeling best practices for nonbiased behaviors and language; using empathetic and empowering counseling techniques, such as motivational interviewing, and addressing weight stigma and bullying in the clinic visit; advocating for inclusion of training and education about weight stigma in medical schools, residency programs, and continuing medical education programs; and empowering families to be advocates to address weight stigma in the home environment and school setting.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Pont, S.J, Puhl, R, Cook, S.R, Slusser, W SECTION ON OBESITY, THE OBESITY SOCIETY
Find out more:pediatrics.aappublications.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Pont, S.J, Puhl, R, Cook, S.R, Slusser, W SECTION ON OBESITY, THE OBESITY SOCIETY. 2017. Stigma Experienced by Children and Adolescents With Obesity. American academy of pediatrics. 140(6). DOI: e20173034.

Screening for Obesity in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

An update of the 2010 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for obesity in children 6 years and older.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:US Preventive Services Task Force, Grossman DC, Bibbins-Domingo K, Curry SJ, Barry MJ, Davidson KW, Doubeni CA, Epling JW Jr, Kemper AR, Krist AH, Kurth AE, Landefeld CS, Mangione CM, Phipps MG, Silverstein M, Simon MA, Tseng CW. Screening for Obesity in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 317(23). pp. 2417-2426.

Albanu - Sugar Sweetened beverage tax

City of Albany Ordinance 2016-02 enacts a one cent per ounce general tax, with no expiration date, on the distribution of sugar-sweetened beverages and sweeteners used to sweeten such drinks. The following are exempt: Sweeteners typically used by consumers and distributed to grocery stores; Drinks and sweeteners distributed to small retailers;Milk products, 100% juice, baby formula, alcohol, or drinks taken for medical reasons.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City of Albany
Find out more:www.albanyca.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:City of Albany. https://www.albanyca.org/departments/finance/sugar-sweetened-beverage-tax#:~:text=The%20measure%20approves%20City%20of,sweeten%20such%20drinks%2C%20but%20exempting%3A&text=Milk%20products%2C%20100%25%20juice%2C,drinks%20taken%20for%20medical%20reasons. [Last accessed 09.09.20]

Comprehensive Clinical Practice Guidelines for Medical Care of Patients with Obesity

These AACE/ACE evidence-based clinical practice guidelines address key aspects of obesity care: screening, diagnosis, clinical evaluation, treatment options, therapy selection, and treatment goal.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
Find out more:www.aace.com
Linked document:Download linked document
References:W. Timothy Garvey, Jeffrey I. Mechanick, Elise M. Brett, Alan J. Garber, Daniel L. Hurley, Ania M. Jastreboff, Karl Nadolsky, Rachel Pessah-Pollack, Raymond Plodkowski, and Reviewers of the AACE/ACE Obesity Clinical Practice Guidelines (2016) AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY COMPREHENSIVE CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR MEDICAL CARE OF PATIENTS WITH OBESITY. Endocrine Practice: July 2016, Vol. 22, No. Supplement 3, pp. 1-203.

National Physical Activity Plan

The Plan is a comprehensive set of policies, programs, and initiatives designed to increase physical activity in all segments of the U.S. population. The Plan aims to foster a national culture that supports physically active lifestyles. Its ultimate purpose is to improve health, prevent disease and disability, and enhance quality of life.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:National Physical Activity Plan Alliance
Find out more:www.physicalactivityplan.org
Linked document:Download linked document

Oakland - Sugar Sweetened beverage tax

General Tax of one cent ($0.01) per fluid ounce on the privilege of Distributing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Products in the City of Oakland

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City of Oakland
Linked document:Download linked document
References:City of Oakland. https://library.municode.com/ca/oakland/codes/code_of_ordinances?nodeId=TIT4REFI_CH4.52SUEEBEDITA_4.52.010SHTI [Last Accessed 09.09.20]

2015-2020 Edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

The Dietary Guidelines is designed for professionals to help all individuals ages 2 years and older and their families consume a healthy, nutritionally adequate diet.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2015-2020
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Find out more:health.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. December 2015. Available at http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/

Berkley, California - Sugar Sweetened beverage tax

The purpose of this Ordinance is to diminish the human and economic costs of diseases associated with the consumption of sugary drinks by discouraging their distribution and consumption in Berkeley through a tax. Specifically, the purpose of this ordinance is to levy an Excise Tax of one cent ($0.01) per fluid ounce on the distribution of sugar-sweetened beverage products in the City

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City of Berkley
Find out more:www.healthyberkeley.com
Linked document:Download linked document

Final Determination Regarding Partially Hydrogenated Oils (Removing Trans Fat)

Measures to limit or virtually eliminate industrially-produced trans fatty acids in food intended for the final consumer and/or for supply to retail. Based on the available scientific evidence and the findings of expert scientific panels, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) has made a final determination that there is no longer a consensus among qualified experts that partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs), which are the primary dietary source of industrially-produced trans fatty acids (IP–TFA) are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for any use in human food. (Available only in English language)

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:FDA
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/25331 (last accessed 16.08.22)

Navajo Nation - Junk food tax

The Junk Food Tax applies to the sale of junk food when the transfer of ownership and/or risk of loss occur within the Navajo Nation. “Junk food” means ‘minimal-to-no nutritional value food” as defined by the Junk Food Statute, it includes: sugar-sweetened beverages, pre-packaged and non-pre-packaged snacks stripped of essential nutrients and high in salt, saturated fat and sugar including sweets, chips and crisps. The tax has been effective since April 1, 2015, at a rate of 2%.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Navajo Nation Council
Linked document:Download linked document

Pharmacological management of obesity: an endocrine Society clinical practice guideline

Clinical practice guidelines for the pharmacological management of obesity.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Apovian C.M, Aronne L.J, Bessesen D.H, McDonnell M.E, Murad M.H, Pagotto U, Ryan D.H, Still C.D; Endocrine Society.
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
References:Apovian CM, Aronne LJ, Bessesen DH, McDonnell ME, Murad MH, Pagotto U, Ryan DH, Still CD; Endocrine Society. Pharmacological management of obesity: an endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Feb;100(2):342-62. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-3415. Epub 2015 Jan 15. Erratum in: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 May;100(5):2135-6. PMID: 25590212.

The New York City Health Code

Article 81 of the New York City Health Code (addition of section 81.49) states that chain restaurants must put a warning label on menus and menu boards (a salt-shaker symbol) when dishes contain 2,300mg of sodium or more. It came into effect on 1 December 2015 and applies to food service establishments with 15 or more locations nationwide.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City of New York
Find out more:www1.nyc.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:City of New York. https://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/about/about-doh/health-code-and-rules.page [Last Accessed 09.09.20]

Choose Health LA

Choose Health LA is a local initiative of the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health to prevent and control chronic disease in Los Angeles County. It aims to improve nutrition, increasing physical activity and reduce obesity in LA County.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2014 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Los Angeles County Department of Public Health
Find out more:www.choosehealthla.com

Menu Labeling Requirements

Menu labeling requirements that apply to restaurants and similar retail food establishments that are part of a chain with 20 or more locations. Covered establishments must disclose the number of calories contained in standard items on menus and menu boards. For self-service foods and foods on display, calories must be listed in close proximity and clearly associated with the standard menu item.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2014 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Food and Drug Administration
Find out more:www.fda.gov
Linked document:Download linked document

Plan of Action for the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents

This is a 5 year plan of action that calls for the implementation of fiscal policies such as taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages, regulation of food marketing and labelling, improvement of school nutrition and physical activity environments and promotion of breast-feeding and healthy eating across the Pan American region.

Categories:Transnational Obesity Strategies/Policy or Action Plan
Year(s):2014-2019
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Pan America Health Organisation (PAHO)
Find out more:www.paho.org
Linked document:Download linked document

Eat Smart Move More

Eat Smart, Move More' North Carolina is a statewide movement that promotes increased opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity wherever people live, learn, earn, play and pray. The work includes North Carolina’s Plan to Address Overweight and Obesity, which is a guide of evidence-informed or evidence-based strategies for anyone working in the area of overweight and obesity prevention.

Categories:Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action plan
Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:North Carolina Division of Public Health
Find out more:www.eatsmartmovemorenc.com

Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults

Clinical practice guidelines for assessment of cardiovascular risk, lifestyle modifications to reduce cardiovascular risk, management of blood cholesterol in adults, and management of overweight and obesity in adults.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:American College of Cardiology (ACC), American Heart Association (AHA), The Obesity Society (TOS)
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Jensen, M.D, et al. 2014. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. HHS Author Manuscripts. 129(25 Suppl 2): S102–S138.

Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement: Prevention and Management of Obesity for Adults, 2013

Guidelines on the prevention and management of obesity in adults.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Fitch A, Everling L, Fox C, Goldberg J, Heim C, Johnson K, Kaufman T, Kennedy E, Kestenbaun C, Lano_x000D__x000D_ M, Leslie D, Newell T, O’Connor P, Slusarek B, Spaniol A, Stovitz S, Webb B.
Find out more:www.healthpartners.com
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Fitch A, Everling L, Fox C, Goldberg J, Heim C, Johnson K, Kaufman T, Kennedy E, Kestenbaun C, Lano M, Leslie D, Newell T, O’Connor P, Slusarek B, Spaniol A, Stovitz S, Webb B. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Prevention and Management of Obesity for Adults. Updated May 2013. Available from: https://www.healthpartners.com/ucm/groups/public/@hp/@public/documents/documents/cntrb_037112.pdf. [Accessed 7th January 2019].

Strategies to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases: The CDC Guide to Strategies to Support Breastfeeding Mothers and Babies

Guidance for public health professionals and others on how to select strategies to support breastfeeding mothers and increase breastfeeding rates.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Find out more:www.usbreastfeeding.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2013. Strategies to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases: The CDC Guide to Strategies to Support Breastfeeding Mothers and Babies. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2013. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/pdf/BF-Guide-508.PDF. [Accessed 7th January 2019].

7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs

National mandatory standards for food available in schools. This final rule updates the meal patterns and nutrition standards for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs to align them with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. This rule requires most schools to increase the availability of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free and low-fat fluid milk in school meals; reduce the levels of sodium, saturated fat and trans fat in meals; and meet the nutrition needs of school children within their calorie requirements. These improvements to the school meal programs, largely based on recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, are expected to enhance the diet and health of school children, and help mitigate the childhood obesity trend. (Available only in English)

Categories:Evidence of School Food Regulations
Year(s):2012 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/43623 (last accessed 16.08.22)

Fit NOLA

Since 2012, the Fit NOLA partnership has been committed to ensuring that all New Orleanians have access to community resources that promote nutritional foods and physical activity. The ultimate goal of the initiative is to increase physical activity and healthier eating.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2012 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:City of New Orleans Health Department and local organisations
Find out more:www.nola.gov
Linked document:Download linked document

Food Fit Philly

Food Fit Philly is part of Get Healthy Philly, the Division of Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention for the Philadelphia Department of Public Health. Get Healthy Philly's goal is to make healthy choices easier by 1) Ensuring that all Philadelphians have access to healthy and affordable food. 2) Reducing the consumption and marketing of sugary drinks and junk foods among children and adults. 3) Creating safe spaces for physical activity in communities, including walking and cycling.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2012 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Philadelphia Department of Public Health
Find out more:www.foodfitphilly.org

Strong4Life

Strong4Life is a wellness movement designed to ignite societal change and reverse the epidemic of childhood obesity and its associated diseases in Georgia. Strong4Life reaches families through public awareness, policy change efforts, school programs, healthcare provider programs, and community partnerships.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2012 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Children's Healthcare of Atlanta
Find out more:www.strong4life.com

Food Hero

Food Hero's mission is to help low-income Oregonians improve their health through the increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Food Hero helps families budget for, plan, and createcountless healthy, super tasty meals.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Oregon State University
Find out more:www.foodhero.org

Food Literacy Center

The Food Literacy Center is a non-profit organisation based in the Sacramento area. It aims to teach low-income elementary children cooking and nutrition to improve their health, environment and economy.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Food Literacy Center
Find out more:www.foodliteracycenter.org

Hawaii 5210 "Let's Go!"

Hawaii 5210 "Let's Go!" is an initiative to promote healthy eating and active living and prevent childhood obesity in Hawaii through a coordinated, collaborative, locally relevant health education campaign.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Hawaii Initiative for Childhood Obesity Research and Education
Find out more:www.hawaii5210.com

National Prevention Strategy

The National Prevention Strategy’s vision is Working together to improve the health and quality of life for individuals, families, and communities by moving the nation from a focus on sickness and disease to one based on prevention and wellness.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Linked document:Download linked document
References:National Prevention Council, National Prevention Strategy, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General, 2011.

School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

CDC integrated research and best practices related to promoting healthy eating and physical activity in schools, culminating in the School Health Guidelines. There are 9 School Health Guidelines that serve as the foundation for developing, implementing, and evaluating school-based healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices for students.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Find out more:www.cdc.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. MMWR 2011;60

Strategies to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases: The CDC Guide to Strategies to Increase Physical Activity in the Community

This document provides guidance for program managers, policy makers, and others on how to select strategies to increase physical activity in the community.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Find out more:www.cdc.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Strategies to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases: The CDC Guide to Strategies to Increase Physical Activity in the Community. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2011.

Healthy Hunger - Free Kids Act of 2010

The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act is a federal statute signed into law by President Barack Obama on December 13, 2010. The legislation authorized funding and set policy for USDA's core child nutrition programs: the National School Lunch Program, the School Breakfast Program, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children , the Summer Food Service Program, and the Child and Adult Care Food Program.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:U.S Government
Find out more:www.fns.usda.gov

Healthy People 2020

Healthy People 2020 aims to identify nationwide improvement priorities, increase public awareness and understanding of the determinants of health and disease, provide measurable objectives and goals, engage multiple sectors and identify critical research, evaluation and data collection needs.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:U.S Department of Health and Human Sciences
Find out more:www.healthypeople.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:U.S Department of Health and Human Sciences

Salad bars to schools

Healthy school lunch initiative aiming to provide every school in the US with a salad bar to help ensure that every child has access to fruit, vegetables,fibre, wholegrains and healthy protein.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Chef Ann Foundation, National Fruit and Vegetable Alliance, United Fresh Start Foundation, and Whole Foods Market
Find out more:www.saladbars2schools.org
References:Salad bars to schools. (2019). Available from: http://www.saladbars2schools.org/. [Accessed 2 May 2019].

Solving the Problem of Childhood Obesity in a Generation

White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity’s action plan for solving the problem of childhood obesity in a generation. commendations focus on the four priority areas set forth in the Memorandum: (1) empowering parents and caregivers; (2) providing healthy food in schools; (3) improving access to healthy, affordable foods; and (4) increasing physical activity

Categories (partial):Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action plan
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:White House Task Force
Linked document:Download linked document

Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States

The document recommends 24 strategies for obesity prevention. There is a suggested measurement for each strategy that communities can use to assess performance and track progress over time. The 24 strategiesare divided into six categories: 1) strategies to promote the availability of affordable healthy food and beverages), 2) strategies to support healthy food and beverage choices, 3) a strategy to encourage breastfeeding, 4) strategies to encourage physical activity or limit sedentary activity among children and youth, 5) strategies to create safe communities that support physical activity, and 6) a strategy to encourage communities to organise for change.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2009 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Find out more:www.cdc.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Keener, D., Goodman, K., Lowry, A., Zaro, S., & Kettel Khan, L. (2009). Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States: Implementation and measurement guide. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAG) are an essential resource for health professional and policymakers. They provide guidance on how children and adults can improve their health through physical activity.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2008-2018
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Linked document:Download linked document

The Consortium to Lower Obesity in Chicago Children (CLOCC)

CLOCC is a nationally recognized childhood obesity prevention program. CLOCC aims to address childhood obesity by promoting healthy and active lifestyles for children throughout the Chicago metropolitan area.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2002 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Consortium to Lower Obesity in Chicago Children
Find out more:www.clocc.net

Food Labeling: Mandatory Status of Nutrition Labeling and Nutrient Content Revision, Format for Nutrition Label

Mandatory national labelling guidelines for packaged foods and drinks in place. (Available only in English language)

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):1994 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Food and Drug Administration, HHS
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/22916 (last accessed 10.08.22)

5 A Day for Better Health Program

The National Cancer Institute's '5 A Day for Better Health Program' is a national program that approaches Americans with a simple, positive message: Eat 5 or more servings of vegetables and fruit daily for better health. The Program, a partnership between the vegetable and fruit industry and the NCI, has four major components: mass media, point of purchase, community coalitions, and research.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):1991 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:The National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Linked document:Download linked document

California Project LEAN

California Project LEAN (Leaders Encouraging Activity and Nutrition) is a program run by the Public Health Institute. California Project LEAN works to advance nutrition and physical activity policy in schools, early childcare and other community settings in order to prevent obesity and its associated chronic diseases.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):1987 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Public Health Institute
Find out more:www.californiaprojectlean.org

The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)

The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) is a federally-funded programme that offers nutrition education to limited-resource families and children in all 50 states and U.S. territories.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):1969 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:United States Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA NIFA)
Find out more:nifa.usda.gov

4-H Healthy Living Programs

4-H Healthy Living programs aim to help 4-H youth learn how to lead lives that balance physical, mental, and emotional health. 4-H healthy living programs are available through local 4-H clubs and through grant-funded programs. Focus areas for 4-H healthy living programs include nutrition, childhood obesity, drug awareness, bullying prevention, health and fitness, safety, stress management, and food science.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Target age group:Children
Organisation:4-H
Find out more:www.4-h.org

Childhood Overweight and Obesity Task Force

National Multisectoral stakeholder mechanism in place (such as Coalition, Taskforce, Committee) for Obesity or Nutrition (including obesity).

Categories:Evidence of a multi-sectoral national coordination mechanism for obesity or nutrition (including obesity)
Target age group:Children

GNPR 2016-17 (q7) Breastfeeeding promotion and/or counselling

WHO Global Nutrition Policy Review 2016-2017 reported the evidence of breastfeeding promotion and/or counselling (q7)

Categories:Evidence of Breastfeeding promotion or related activity
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Ministry of Health (information provided by the GINA progam)
Find out more:extranet.who.int
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en

No actions could be found for the above criteria.

Contextual factors

Disclaimer: These contextual factors should be interpreted with care. Results are updated as regularly as possible and use very specific criteria. The criteria used and full definitions are available for download at the bottom of this page.

Tap on a tick to find out more about policies influencing this factor.

Labelling

Is there mandatory nutrition labelling?Present
Front-of-package labelling?Absent
Back-of-pack nutrition declaration?Present
Color coding?Absent
Warning label?Absent

Regulation and marketing

Are there fiscal policies on unhealthy products?Present
Tax on unhealthy foods?Present
Tax on unhealthy drinks?Present
Are there fiscal policies on healthy products?Present
Subsidy on fruits?Present
Subsidy on vegetables?Present
Subsidy on other healthy products?Present
Mandatory limit or ban of trans fat (all settings)?Present
Mandatory limit of trans fats in place (all settings)? Absent
Ban on trans-fats or phos in place (all settings)? Present
Are there any mandatory policies/marketing restrictions on the promotion of unhealthy food/drinks to children?Absent
Mandatory restriction on broadcast media?Absent
Mandatory restriction on non-broadcast media?Absent
Voluntary policies/marketing restrictions on the promotion of unhealthy food/drinks to children?Absent
Are there mandatory standards for food in schools?Present
Are there any mandatory nutrient limits in any manufactured food products?Absent
Nutrition standards for pub