• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Economic impact
  • Policies
  • Contextual factors
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:15+
Sample size:627
Area covered:Regional
References:Sakboonyarat, B., Pornpongsawad, C., Sangkool, T. et al. Trends, prevalence and associated factors of obesity among adults in a rural community in Thailand: serial cross-sectional surveys, 2012 and 2018. BMC Public Health 20, 850 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09004-w
Notes:NB Small regional survey NOT NATIONAL
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:15663
Area covered:National
References:Yan LD, Hanvoravongchai P, Aekplakorn W, Chariyalertsak S, Kessomboon P, Assanangkornchai S, et al. (2020) Universal coverage but unmet need: National and regional estimates of attrition across the diabetes care continuum in Thailand. PLoS ONE 15(1):e0226286. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226286
Notes:Adults aged 20 and older with a fasting plasma glucose were included.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:19,181
Area covered:National
References:Wichai Aekplakorn, Rungkarn Inthawong, Pattapong Kessomboon, et al., “Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991–2009,” Journal of Obesity, vol. 2014, Article ID 410259, 8 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/410259
Notes:In this graph, overweight refers to BMI 25–<30, and obesity as BMI ≥30 kg/m2
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:39290
Area covered:National
References:Aekplakorn W and Mo-Suwan L. (2009). National prevalence of obesity. Prevalence of obesity in Thailand. Obesity Reviews, 10: 589 - 592.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2003-2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:19+
Sample size:7279
Area covered:National
References:Jitnarin N, Kosulwat V, Rojroongwasinkul N et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Thai population: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey. 2011;16:e242-e249
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:35+
Sample size:5350
References:http://www.fnri.dost.gov.ph/files/fnri%20files/nns/factsandfigures2003/anthropometric.pdf last accessed June 14th 2011
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1997

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-59
Sample size:3220
References:Aekplakorn W, Chaiyapong Y, Neal B, Chariyalertsak W, Kunanusont C, Phoolcharoen W, Suriyawongpaisal P. Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in Thai Adults: Results of the Second National Health Examination Survey. J Med Asssoc Thai 2004;87(6):685-93
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1985

Survey type:Measured
Age:35-54
Sample size:3495
References:Tanphaichitr V, Kulapongse S, Pakpeankitvatana R, et al. Prevalence of obesity and its associated risks in urban Thais. In: Oomura Y, Tarui S, Inoue S, Shimazu T, eds. Progress in obesity research, 1990 London: Libbey, 1991:649-53
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-18
Sample size:1749
Area covered:Regional
References:Nonboonyawat T, Pusanasuwannasri W, Chanrat N, Wongthanavimok N, Tubngern D, Panutrakul P, Mungthin M, Nivesvivat T, Hatthachote P, Rangsin R, Piyaraj P. (2019) 'Prevalence and associates of obesity and overweight among school-age children in a rural community of Thailand.' Korean J Pediatr. doi: 10.3345/kjp.2018.06499.
Notes:WHO cut-offs used.
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2015

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:13-17
Sample size:5894
Area covered:National
References:Global School-based Student Health Survey Thailand 2015 Fact Sheet https://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/gshs/2015-Thailand-GSHS-Fact-Sheet.pdf?ua=1 (last accessed 24.11.20)
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2008

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:13-15
Sample size:2767
Area covered:National
References:Global School-based Student Health Survey Thailand 2008 Fact Sheethttps://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/gshs/2008_Thailand_fact_sheet.pdf?ua=1 (last accessed 24.11.20)
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2003-2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:3-18
Sample size:9287
Area covered:National
References:Jitnarin N, Kosulwat V, Rojroongwasinkul N et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Thai population: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey. 2011;16:e242-e249
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1997

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-15
Sample size:1290
Area covered:Regional
References:Mo-Suwan L, Tongkumchum P, Puetpaiboon A. Determinants of overweight tracking from childhood to adolescence: a 5 y follow-up study of Hat Yai schoolchildren. International Journal of Obesity (2000) 24, 164-1647
Notes:Urban 85th Centile NHANES
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 1992

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-16
Sample size:2252
Area covered:Regional
References:Mo-suwan L, Tongkumchum P and Puetpaiboon A. Determinants of overweight tracking from childhood to adolescence: a 5 year follow up study of Hat Yai schoolchildren. IJO 2000;24:1642-1647
Notes:Hat Yai municipality, southern Thailand Child Cut-Off point: 85th Centile NHANES (see paper for further details)
Cutoffs:Other

Overweight/obesity by education

Men, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:19,181
Area covered:National - URBAN
References:Wichai Aekplakorn, Rungkarn Inthawong, Pattapong Kessomboon, et al., “Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991–2009,” Journal of Obesity, vol. 2014, Article ID 410259, 8 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/410259
Notes:Prevalence of Overweight & Obesity by Education in Urban Areas In this graph, overweight refers to BMI 25–<30, and obesity as BMI ≥30 kg/m2
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:19,181
Area covered:National - URBAN
References:Wichai Aekplakorn, Rungkarn Inthawong, Pattapong Kessomboon, et al., “Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991–2009,” Journal of Obesity, vol. 2014, Article ID 410259, 8 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/410259
Notes:Prevalence of Overweight & Obesity by Education in Urban Areas In this graph, overweight refers to BMI 25–<30, and obesity as BMI ≥30 kg/m2
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:19,181
Area covered:National - RURAL
References:Wichai Aekplakorn, Rungkarn Inthawong, Pattapong Kessomboon, et al., “Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991–2009,” Journal of Obesity, vol. 2014, Article ID 410259, 8 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/410259
Notes:Prevalence of Overweight & Obesity by Education in Rural Areas In this graph, overweight refers to BMI 25–<30, and obesity as BMI ≥30 kg/m2
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:19,181
Area covered:National - RURAL
References:Wichai Aekplakorn, Rungkarn Inthawong, Pattapong Kessomboon, et al., “Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991–2009,” Journal of Obesity, vol. 2014, Article ID 410259, 8 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/410259
Notes:Prevalence of Overweight & Obesity by Education in Rural Areas In this graph, overweight refers to BMI 25–<30, and obesity as BMI ≥30 kg/m2
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Overweight/obesity by age

Adults, 2018

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:627
Area covered:Na-Ngam rural community
References:Trends, prevalence and associated factors of obesity among adults in a rural community in Thailand: serial cross-sectional surveys, 2012 and 2018. Available at: https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-020-09004-w#:~:text=In%20Thailand%2C%20the%20Thai%20National%20Health%20Examination%20Surveys,among%20males%20and%20females%2C%20respectively%20%5B%203%20%5D.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2003-2005

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:7279
Area covered:National
References:Jitnarin N, Kosulwat V, Rojroongwasinkul N et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Thai population: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey. 2011;16:e242-e249
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2021

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:5661
Area covered:National
References:2021 GSHS Fact Sheet Thailand. Available at: https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/default-source/ncds/ncd-surveillance/data-reporting/thailand/2021_thailand_gshs_fact_sheetada1f3cd-2ee4-4258-a01f-b40873aaf988.pdf?sfvrsn=be5c3553_1&download=true
Cutoffs:BMI-for-age-sex

Children, 2003-2005

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:9287
Area covered:National
References:Jitnarin N, Kosulwat V, Rojroongwasinkul N et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Thai population: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey. 2011;16:e242-e249
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by region

Men, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:19,181
Area covered:National
References:Wichai Aekplakorn, Rungkarn Inthawong, Pattapong Kessomboon, et al., “Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991–2009,” Journal of Obesity, vol. 2014, Article ID 410259, 8 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/410259
Notes:In this graph, overweight refers to BMI 25–<30, and obesity as BMI ≥30 kg/m2
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:19,181
Area covered:National
References:Wichai Aekplakorn, Rungkarn Inthawong, Pattapong Kessomboon, et al., “Prevalence and Trends of Obesity and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Thai Adults: National Health Examination Surveys, 1991–2009,” Journal of Obesity, vol. 2014, Article ID 410259, 8 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/410259
Notes:In this graph, overweight refers to BMI 25–<30, and obesity as BMI ≥30 kg/m2
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2003-2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:19+
Sample size:7279
Area covered:National
References:Jitnarin N, Kosulwat V, Rojroongwasinkul N et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Thai population: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey. 2011;16:e242-e249
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2003-2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:19+
Sample size:7279
Area covered:National
References:Jitnarin N, Kosulwat V, Rojroongwasinkul N et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Thai population: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey. 2011;16:e242-e249
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2003-2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:19+
Sample size:7279
Area covered:National
References:Jitnarin N, Kosulwat V, Rojroongwasinkul N et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Thai population: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey. 2011;16:e242-e249
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2003-2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:19+
Sample size:7279
Area covered:National
References:Jitnarin N, Kosulwat V, Rojroongwasinkul N et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Thai population: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey. 2011;16:e242-e249
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Boys, 2003-2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:3-18
Sample size:9287
Area covered:National
References:Jitnarin N, Kosulwat V, Rojroongwasinkul N et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Thai population: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey. 2011;16:e242-e249
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2003-2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:3-18
Sample size:9287
Area covered:National
References:Jitnarin N, Kosulwat V, Rojroongwasinkul N et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Thai population: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey. 2011;16:e242-e249
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 2003-2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:3-18
Sample size:9287
Area covered:National
References:Jitnarin N, Kosulwat V, Rojroongwasinkul N et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Thai population: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey. 2011;16:e242-e249
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2003-2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:3-18
Sample size:9287
Area covered:National
References:Jitnarin N, Kosulwat V, Rojroongwasinkul N et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Thai population: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey. 2011;16:e242-e249
Cutoffs:IOTF

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2016

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, https://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893ADO?lang=en (last accessed 16.03.21)
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Average daily frequency of carbonated soft drink consumption

Children, 2014-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system

Estimated per capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Prevalence of less than daily fruit consumption

Children, 2008-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Global School-based Student Health Surveys. Beal et al (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287. Sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily fruit consumption (% less-than-daily fruit consumption)

Prevalence of less than daily vegetable consumption

Children, 2008-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily vegetable consumption (% less-than-daily vegetable consumption)

Average weekly frequency of fast food consumption

Children, 2014-2015

Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

% Infants exclusively breastfed 0-5 months

Children, 2015-2020

Area covered:National
References:Thailand Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2019, Survey Findings Report. Bangkok, Thailand: National Statistical Office of Thailand.
Notes:See UNICEF website for further survey information. Available at : https://data.unicef.org/resources/dataset/infant-young-child-feeding/ (last accessed 28.9.21) Citation: United Nations Children’s Fund, Division of Data, Analysis, Planning and Monitoring (2021). Global UNICEF Global Databases: Infant and Young Child Feeding: Exclusive breastfeeding, New York, September 2021.
Definitions:% exclusively breastfed 0-5 months

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Breast cancer

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, breast, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, cervix uteri, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2021

Age:20-79
Area covered:National
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation.  IDF Diabetes Atlas, 10th edn. Brussels, Belgium:International Diabetes Federation, 2021. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Age-adjusted comparative prevalence of diabetes, %

Adults, 2019

Age:20-79
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th edn. Brussels,Belgium: 2019. Available at: https://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Total economic cost as % of GDP

Country comparisons

You can choose to compare this country’s data with the data for up to four other countries.

Policies, Interventions and Actions

Controls on the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverages to children in Thailand: legislative options and regulatory design

The purpose of this report is to provide background evidence to the Government of Thailand as it considers the introduction of stronger controls on the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverages to children. The report sets out i) the rationale for strengthening legislation ii) the required scope of legislation and iii) the mechanisms for legislation monitoring, evaluation and enforcement.

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2020 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:UNICEF
Linked document:Download linked document

Thai Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Consensus Guideline on Bariatric Surgery for the Treatment of Obese Patient in Thailand

Currently unable to access document

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2020 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Thai Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery
Find out more:www.jmatonline.com
References:Techagumpuch A, Pantanakul S, Chansaenroj P, Boonyagard N, Wittayapairoch J, Poonthananiwatkul T, Chanswangphuvana P, et al. Thai Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Consensus Guideline on Bariatric Surgery for the Treatment of Obese Patient in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 2020;103:300-7.

Obesity Management Guidelines

Only available in Thai Language

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2019 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Health Systems Research Institute & Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital Mahidol University
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en

Trans-fat policy

In January 2019, Thailand put in place a ban on PHO,

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2019 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health
Find out more:extranet.who.int
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Countdown to 2023: WHO report on global trans-fat elimination 2020. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO

Law on Food Labelling (No. 3) 2018

Update on New Food Labelling law - In Thai Language

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Food Law, Ministry of Public Health
Find out more:food.fda.moph.go.th

National Plan to Promote Physical Activity (2018-2030)

The Ministry of Public Health Thailand, the Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Labour and the Thai Health Promotion Foundation, launched the National Plan to Promote Physical Activity (2018-2030) and its Action Plan (2018-2020) in 2018. These first-ever policy documents reiterate the high-level political commitment of the Royal Thai Government in promoting a healthy lifestyle.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2018-2030
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government
Linked document:Download linked document

(Draft) Strategic Framework Food Management of Thailand Second Edition 2017-2036

Report in Thai language

Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2017-2036
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:National Food Board
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en

Control of Marketing Promotion of Infant and Young Child Food Act

The Act is enacted to strengthen the control of marketing promotion of infant and young child food. The act bans all advertising of food for infants (eg breastmilk substitutes) and complementary food for infants. It also prohibits the use infants or young children in advertisements.

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Categories (partial):Evidence of Breastfeeding promotion or related activity
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Linked document:Download linked document
References:https://www.hiso.or.th/hiso/picture/reportHealth/ThaiHealth2018/eng2018_16.pdf

National NCDs Prevention and Control Strategic and Action Plan (2017-2021)

Categories:Evidence of NCD strategy
Year(s):2017-2021
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Public Health
Linked document:Download linked document

NCD Country Profiles 2018 (Obesity Targets)

The profiles also provide data on the key metabolic risk factors, namely raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose and obesity and National Targets on Obesity (as of 2017)

Categories:Evidence of Obesity Target
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:World Health Organisation
References:Noncommunicable diseases country profiles 2018. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.

Sugar tax on beverages

Excise sugar tax on certain beverages to reduce consumption of sugar and to increase health consciousness. Beverages with >6g sugar per 100ml targeted.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Thai Excise Department
Find out more:gain.fas.usda.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:USDA Foreign Agricultural service (2017). Global agricultural information network. Available from: https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Thai%20Excise%20Department%20Implements%20New%20Sugar%20Tax%20on%20Beverages_Bangkok_Thailand_10-17-2017.pdf. [Accessed 14 December 2018].

Healthier Choices logo

In August 2016, the voluntary Healthier Choices logo was launched in Thailand, a front-of-pack labelling scheme to help consumers identify healthier food choices (Notification of the Ministry of Public Health No. 373, B.E.2559 2016, Re: The Display of Nutrition Symbol on Food Label, 12 February 2016). The logo was developed in collaboration between the National Food Commission, the Ministry of Health's Food and Drug Administration, the Health Promotion Foundation and Mahidol University. The Healthier Choices logo is owned by the Thai Food and Drug Administration, and its use is managed by the Nutrition Promotion Foundation of Mahidol University. The point system contains minimum and maximum levels of total fat, saturated fat, total sugar, protein, sodium, calcium fibre and iron in six categories, ranging from 0 (worst) to 5 (best).

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Thai Food and Drug Administration
Find out more:policydatabase.wcrf.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:https://policydatabase.wcrf.org/level_one?page=nourishing-level-one#step2=0#step3=309

The Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA) Label

The Ministry of Public Health Notification (No. 374) BE. 2559 (2016) issued by the Thai Food and Drug Administration requires five categories of food (snack, chocolate, bakery, semi-processed food and chilled or frozen meal) to carry a Guideline Daily Amounts (GDAs) label.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health
Linked document:Download linked document
References:https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/25401

Labeling of Prepackaged Foods

Labeling of prepackaged food manufactured for sale or imported for sale is mandated to have percentage by weight of main ingredients in descending orders in the Thai language.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2014 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Public Health
Linked document:Download linked document
References:https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/41883

Smart Kids Camp

An intervention to improve physical activity and promote healthy behaviour among school-aged children

Categories (partial):Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Bureau of Nutrition
Find out more:nutrition.anamai.moph.go.th

National food committee

The National Food Committee is the main mechanism for the development and the promotion of national strategies and policies on key aspects of food and food chain - namely food quality, food safety, food security and food education.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2008 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government
Find out more:www.fao.org

Thailand Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative - Thai Pledge

The Thailand Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (Thai Pledge) is a common commitment to responsible food and beverage advertising on TV, radio, print media and third party internet that includes a shared commitment not to advertise food and beverage products to children under the age of 12 in Thailand unless the products meet specified nutritional criteria. These voluntary measures are made by food and beverage companies in support of the efforts of governments, parents, industry and others to promote healthy lifestyles amongst children in Thailand.

Categories:Industry/Government regulations - voluntary /pledges
Categories (partial):Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2008 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:The International Food & Beverage Alliance
Find out more:ifballiance.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:https://ifballiance.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Thai_Pledge_Fact_sheet_Eng_21_05_08.pdf

The Pak Poon Model

It comprises early childhood development programs, support units for disabled children, alternative learning programs for drop-out students, programs oriented to reducing obesity among children and ageing people, and programs to encourage people to live self-sufficiently by having their own gardens.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2008 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Thai Health / Pak Poon
Linked document:Download linked document

Food-based dietary guidelines for Thailand

The Thai food guide is a hanging flag, known as "the nutrition flag". The four layers in the nutrition flag denote the type and amount of the food groups that are recommended for consumption. To achieve a healthy food intake and control the obesity prevalence.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):1998 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health with the assistance of the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Agriculture, the Nutrition Institute, nutrition associations and universities.
Find out more:www.fao.org
Linked document:Download linked document

GNPR 2016-17 (q7) Breastfeeeding promotion and/or counselling

WHO Global Nutrition Policy Review 2016-2017 reported the evidence of breastfeeding promotion and/or counselling (q7)

Categories:Evidence of Breastfeeding promotion or related activity
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Ministry of Health (information provided by the GINA progam)
Find out more:extranet.who.int
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en

Obesity and complication management guideline

Document in Thai. Guidelines endorsed by Health System Research Institute

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Target age group:Adults and children
Linked document:Download linked document

No actions could be found for the above criteria.

Contextual factors

Disclaimer: These contextual factors should be interpreted with care. Results are updated as regularly as possible and use very specific criteria. The criteria used and full definitions are available for download at the bottom of this page.

Tap on a tick to find out more about policies influencing this factor.

Labelling

Is there mandatory nutrition labelling?Present
Front-of-package labelling?Present-(voluntary)
Back-of-pack nutrition declaration?Present
Color coding?Absent
Warning label?Absent

Regulation and marketing

Are there fiscal policies on unhealthy products?Present
Tax on unhealthy foods?Absent
Tax on unhealthy drinks?Present
Are there fiscal policies on healthy products?Absent
Subsidy on fruits?Absent
Subsidy on vegetables?Absent
Subsidy on other healthy products?Absent
Mandatory limit or ban of trans fat (all settings)?Present
Mandatory limit of trans fats in place (all settings)? Present
Ban on trans-fats or phos in place (all settings)? Present
Are there any mandatory policies/marketing restrictions on the promotion of unhealthy food/drinks to children?Present
Mandatory restriction on broadcast media?Present
Mandatory restriction on non-broadcast media?Present
Voluntary policies/marketing restrictions on the promotion of unhealthy food/drinks to children?Present-(voluntary)
Are there mandatory standards for food in schools?Absent
Are there any mandatory nutrient limits in any manufactured food products?Absent
Nutrition standards for public sector procurement?Absent

Political will and support

National obesity strategy or nutrition and physical activity national strategy?Present
National obesity strategy?Absent
National childhood obesity strategy?Absent
Comprehensive nutrition strategy?Present
Comprehensive physical activity strategy?Present
Evidence-based dietary guidelines and/or RDAs?Present
National target(s) on reducing obesity?Present
Guidelines/policy on obesity treatment?Present
Promotion of breastfeeding?Present

Monitoring and surveillance

Monitoring of the prevalence and incidence for the main obesity-related NCDs and risk factors?Present
Within 5 years?Present

Governance and resource

Multi-sectoral national co-ordination mechanism for obesity or nutrition (including obesity)?Present

Key

Present
Present (voluntary)
Incoming
Absent
Unknown

Last updated September 13, 2022

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