• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Health systems
  • Actions
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:EUROSTAT Database http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_hch10&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2014-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-64
Sample size:3966
Area covered:National
References:Aranceta-Bartrina, J. et al. (2016) 'Prevalence of General Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Spanish Adult Population (Aged 25-64 Years) 2014-2015: The ENPE Study', Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed), 69(6), pp. 579-87. doi: 10.1016/j.rec.2016.02.009. Epub 2016 Apr 26
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2008-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:12036
Area covered:National
References:Gutierrez-Fisac JL, Guallar-Castillion P, Leon-Munoz LM, Graciani A, Banegas JR & Rodriguez-Artalejo F. Prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in the adult population of Spain, 2008-2010. Obesity Reviews early online 12th Dec 2011.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2001

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:6569
References:http://www.fnri.dost.gov.ph/files/fnri%20files/nns/factsandfigures2003/anthropometric.pdf last accessed June 14th 2011
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1990-2001

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:20589
Area covered:Regional
References:Serra Majem L, Ribas Barba L, Aranceta-Bartrina J, Pérez Rodrigo C, Saavedra Santana P, Peña Quintana L. Obesidad infantil y juvenil en España. Resultados del estudio enKid (1998-2000). Med Clin (Barc). 2003, 121 (19): 725-732. Aranceta-Bartrina J, Serra-Majem L, Foz-sala M, Moreno-Esteban B; Grupo Colaborativo SEEDO. Prevalencia de obesidad en España. Med Clin (Barc). 2005, 125 (12): 460-6. Gutierrez-Fisac JL, López E, Banegas JR, Graciani A, Rodríguez-Artalejo F (2004). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in elderly people in Spain. Obes Res; 12 (4): 710-715.
Notes:Pooled analysis of random regional population samples: 1998 - 2000 1990 - 2000 2001
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1990-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-60
Sample size:5388
References:Aranceta J, Perex Rodrigo C, Serra Majem LI et al. Prevalence od Obesity in Spain: SEEDO'97 study. Spanish Collaborative Group for the Study of Obesity. Med Clin (Barc). 1998;117:441-5
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:10,899
Area covered:National
References:Estudio ALADINO Estudio de Vigilancia del Crecimiento, Alimentación,Actividad Física, Desarrollo Infantil y Obesidad en España. 2015. Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad Agencia Española de Consumo, Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición, 2016. Available from: http://www.aecosan.msssi.gob.es/AECOSAN/docs/documentos/nutricion/observatorio/Estudio_ALADINO_2015.pdf (accesed 9th April 2019) [Article in Spanish].
Notes:IOTF cut-offs used.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:8-17
Sample size:978
Area covered:National
References:Sánchez-Cruz JJ, Jiménez-Moleón JJ, Fernández-Quesada F, Sánchez MJ. Prevalence of Child and Youth Obesity in Spain in 2012.Rev Esp Cardiol. 2013 Jan 31. pii: S0300-8932(12)00640-9. doi: 10.1016/j.recesp.2012.10.016. [Epub ahead of print] In English & Spanish
Notes:International IOTF cut off points
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:10-12
Sample size:1008
Area covered:Regional
References:Brug J, van Stralen MM, te Velde SJ, Chinapaw MJM, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. (2012) Differences in Weight Status and Energy-Balance Related Behaviors among Schoolchildren across Europe: The ENERGY-Project. PLoS ONE 7(4): e34742. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034742
Notes:IOTF International Cut Off
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2009-2013

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-8
Sample size:7747
Area covered:National
References:Spinelli et al (2019). 'Childhood Severe Obesity in Europe', Obes Facts.12, pp. 244–258. (Data from COSI round 1-3)
Notes:NOTE - this data is from COSI round II and III (2009- 2013) IOTF cut-offs used.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2000-2002

Survey type:Measured
Age:13-14
Area covered:National
References:Personal communication from LA Moreno
Notes:Large National Survey but sample size not specified IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1998-2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2057
Area covered:National
References:Serra Majem L, Ribas Barba L, Aranceta Bartrina J, Pérez Rodrigo C, Saavedra Santana P, Peña Quintana L. (2003). Obesidad infantil y juvenil en España. Resultados del estudio enKid (1998-2000). Medicina Clinica (Barc). 121 (19): 725 - 732
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1995-1996

Survey type:Measured
Age:13-14
Area covered:National
References:Personal communication from LA Moreno
Notes:Large National Survey but sample size not specified Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1985-1986

Survey type:Measured
Age:13-14
Area covered:National
References:Personal communication from LA Moreno
Notes:Large National Survey but sample size not specified IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by age and education

Men, 2017

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:EUROSTAT Database http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_hch10&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2017

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:EUROSTAT Database http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_hch10&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Overweight/obesity by education

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Sample size:Total sample size in EU = 35100 (Age 18+)
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 9 November 2016)
Notes:Less than primary, primary and lower secondary education (levels 0-2) Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (levels 3 and 4) Tertiary education (levels 5-8) Translated graphics for obesity by educational level are also available for 2011-12 & 1990-94 (on request).
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Sample size:Total sample size in EU = 35100 (Age 18+)
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat Database:http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1e&lang=en (last accessed 9 November 2016)
Notes:Less than primary, primary and lower secondary education (levels 0-2) Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education (levels 3 and 4) Tertiary education (levels 5-8) Translated graphics for obesity by educational level are also available for 2011-12 & 1990-94 (on request).
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2011-2012

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:25-64
Sample size:34784
Area covered:National
References:National Health Survey Spain. Ministry of Health. Social Services and Equality and INE. http://www.ine.es (last accessed 20.5.15)
Notes:Education definitions: 1. Cannot read or write, or incomplete primary education 2. Complete primary education 3. Secondary education, 1st stage 4. Secondary education, 2nd stage 5. Advanced professional training or the equivalent 6. University education
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2011-2012

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:25-64
Sample size:34784
Area covered:National
References:National Health Survey Spain. Ministry of Health. Social Services and Equality and INE. http://www.ine.es (last accessed 20.5.15)
Notes:Education definitions: 1. Cannot read or write, or incomplete primary education 2. Complete primary education 3. Secondary education, 1st stage 4. Secondary education, 2nd stage 5. Advanced professional training or the equivalent 6. University education
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2008

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:EUROSTAT Database http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/health/health-status-determinants/data/database# (last accessed 17th July 2015)
Notes:Definitions are: levels 0-2 = pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education levels 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education levels 5-6 = first and second stage of tertiary education
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2008

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:EUROSTAT Database http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/health/health-status-determinants/data/database# (last accessed 17th July 2015)
Notes:Definitions are: levels 0-2 = pre-primary, primary and lower secondary education levels 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education levels 5-6 = first and second stage of tertiary education
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 1990-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-60
Sample size:5388
Area covered:Four Spanish regions (Catalunya, Basque Country, Madrid and Valencia)
References:Aranceta J, Perez Rodrigo C, Serra Majem L et al. Influence of sociodemographic factors in the prevalence of obesity in Spain. The SEEDO '97 Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2001); 55: 430-435. http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v55/n6/pdf/1601189a.pdf (last accessed 29.4.15)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 1990-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-60
Sample size:5388
Area covered:Four Spanish regions (Catalunya, Basque Country, Madrid and Valencia)
References:Aranceta J, Perez Rodrigo C, Serra Majem L et al. Influence of sociodemographic factors in the prevalence of obesity in Spain. The SEEDO '97 Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2001); 55: 430-435. http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/v55/n6/pdf/1601189a.pdf (last accessed 29.4.15)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:8-17
Sample size:978
Area covered:National
References:Sánchez-Cruz J-J, et al. Prevalencia de obesidad infantil y juvenil en España en 2012. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.recesp.2012.10.016 (last accessed 20.5.15)
Notes:Prevalence of overweight and obesity of children based on educational level of person responsible for diet.
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:10-12
Sample size:1008
Area covered:National
References:Brug J, van Stralen MM, te Velde SJ et al. Differences in Weight Status and Energy-Balance Related Behaviors among Schoolchildren across Europe: The ENERGY-Project. PLoS ONE 2012;7 (4) e34742
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by age

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:EUROSTAT Database http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_hch10&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2008-2010

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:12036
Area covered:National
References:Gutiérrez-Fisac, J. L., Guallar-Castillón, P., León-Muñoz, L. M., Graciani, A., Banegas, J. R. and Rodríguez-Artalejo, F. (2012). Prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in the adult population of Spain, 2008–2010: the ENRICA study. Obesity Reviews; 13: 388–392. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00964.x
Notes:Data on waist circumference and prevalence of abdominal obesity also available.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2015-2016

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:10,899
Area covered:National
References:Available from: http://www.aecosan.msssi.gob.es/AECOSAN/docs/documentos/nutricion/observatorio/Estudio_ALADINO_2015.pdf (accesed 9th April 2019) [Article in Spanish].
Notes:IOTF cut-offs used. Translated graphics for data by age category are also available from 2011-12 and 2010-11 (on request).
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2012

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:978
Area covered:National
References:Sánchez-Cruz J-J, et al. Prevalencia de obesidad infantil y juvenil en España en 2012. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.recesp.2012.10.16 (last accessed 20.5.15)
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2012-2013

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:7yrs 1820 8yrs 1606 Both genders
Area covered:National
References:WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. (2018). WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: overweight and obesity among 6–9-year-old children. Available: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/378865/COSI-3.pdf?ua=1. Last accessed [Accessed 28th Aug 2018].
Notes:WHO cut-offs used.
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2011-2012

Survey type:Self-reported
Sample size:6051
Area covered:National
References:National Health Survey: http://www.ine.es/jaxi/tabla.do (last accessed 20.5.15)
Notes:Self Report
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2010-2011

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:7659
Area covered:National
References:Pérez-Farinós N, López-Sobaler AM, Dal Re MÁ, Villar C, Labrado E, Robledo T, Ortega RM. The ALADINO study: a national study of prevalence of overweight and obesity in Spanish children in 2011. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:163687. doi: 10.1155/2013/163687. Epub 2013 Sep 8
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by region

Men, 1990-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-60
Sample size:5388
Area covered:Four Spanish regions: Catalunya, Basque Country, Madrid and Valenci
References:Aranceta J, Perez Rodrigo C, Serra Majem L et al. Influence of sociodemographic factors in the prevalence of obesity in Spain. The SEEDO '97 Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2001); 55: 430-435
Notes:Obesity defined as BMI => 30 kg/m2
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 1990-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-60
Sample size:5388
Area covered:Four Spanish regions: Catalunya, Basque Country, Madrid and Valenci
References:Aranceta J, Perez Rodrigo C, Serra Majem L et al. Influence of sociodemographic factors in the prevalence of obesity in Spain. The SEEDO '97 Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2001); 55: 430-435
Notes:Obesity defined as BMI => 30 kg/m2
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 1990-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-60
Sample size:5388
Area covered:Four Spanish regions: Catalunya, Basque Country, Madrid and Valenci
References:Aranceta J, Perez Rodrigo C, Serra Majem L et al. Influence of sociodemographic factors in the prevalence of obesity in Spain. The SEEDO '97 Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2001); 55: 430-435
Notes:Data is age-adjusted prevalence. Obesity defined as BMI => 30 kg/m2 Note that odds ratio for obesity by socio-demographic factors also available.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 1990-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-60
Sample size:5388
Area covered:Four Spanish regions: Catalunya, Basque Country, Madrid and Valenci
References:Aranceta J, Perez Rodrigo C, Serra Majem L et al. Influence of sociodemographic factors in the prevalence of obesity in Spain. The SEEDO '97 Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2001); 55: 430-435
Notes:Data is age-adjusted prevalence. Obesity defined as BMI => 30 kg/m2 Note that odds ratio for obesity by socio-demographic factors also available.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Overweight/obesity by age and region

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1u&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1u&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Overweight/obesity by age and socio-economic group

Adults, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Area covered:National
References:Eurostat http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 25.08.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Sample size:Total sample number in EU: 35100 (Age 18+)
Area covered:National
References:EUROSTAT Database: http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 9 November 2016)
Notes:1st Quintile (lowest income), 5th Quintile (highest income) Please note where data = zero, there were insufficient data.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Sample size:Total sample number in EU: 35100 (Age 18+)
Area covered:National
References:EUROSTAT Database: http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=hlth_ehis_bm1i&lang=en (last accessed 9 November 2016)
Notes:1st Quintile (lowest income), 5th Quintile (highest income) Please note where data = zero, there were insufficient data.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2011-2012

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Sample size:34784
Area covered:National
References:National Health Survey: http://www.ine.es/jaxi/tabla.do (last accessed 20.5.15)
Notes:Definitions: I. Directors and managers of establishments with 10 or more wage earners and professionals traditionally associated with university degrees II. Directors and managers of establishments with 10 or more wage earners, professionals traditionally associated with university degrees and other technical support professionals III. Intermediate occupations and self-employed workers IV. Supervisors and workers in skilled technical occupations V. Skilled primary sector workers and other semi-skilled workers VI. Non-skilled workers
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2011-2012

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Sample size:34784
Area covered:National
References:National Health Survey: http://www.ine.es/jaxi/tabla.do (last accessed 20.5.15)
Notes:Definitions: I. Directors and managers of establishments with 10 or more wage earners and professionals traditionally associated with university degrees II. Directors and managers of establishments with 10 or more wage earners, professionals traditionally associated with university degrees and other technical support professionals III. Intermediate occupations and self-employed workers IV. Supervisors and workers in skilled technical occupations V. Skilled primary sector workers and other semi-skilled workers VI. Non-skilled workers
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2008

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:EUROSTAT Database http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/health/health-status-determinants/data/database# (last accessed 17th July 2015)
Notes:SES assessed by annual income.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2008

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:EUROSTAT Database http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/health/health-status-determinants/data/database# (last accessed 17th July 2015)
Notes:SES assessed by annual income.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 1990-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-60
Sample size:5388
Area covered:Four Spanish regions (Catalunya, Basque Country, Madrid and Valencia)
References:Aranceta J, Perez Rodrigo C, Serra Majem L et al. Influence of sociodemographic factors in the prevalence of obesity in Spain. The SEEDO '97 Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2001); 55: 430-435
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 1990-1994

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-60
Sample size:5388
Area covered:Four Spanish regions (Catalunya, Basque Country, Madrid and Valencia)
References:Aranceta J, Perez Rodrigo C, Serra Majem L et al. Influence of sociodemographic factors in the prevalence of obesity in Spain. The SEEDO '97 Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2001); 55: 430-435
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:8-17
Sample size:978
Area covered:National
References:Sánchez-Cruz J-J, et al. Prevalencia de obesidad infantil y juvenil en España en 2012. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.recesp.2012.10.016 (last accessed 20.5.15)
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2007-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-9
Sample size:1824
Area covered:National
References:Ahrens W, Pigeot I, Pohlabeln H et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in European children below the age of 10. IJO 2014;38:S99-S107
Notes:Lowest income groups sample size too small so excluded
Cutoffs:IOTF

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Sugar consumption

Adults, 2016

References:Source: Euromonitor International
Definitions:Sugar consumption (Number of 500g sugar portions/person/month)

Estimated per-capita sugar sweetened beverages intake

Adults, 2016

References:Source: Euromonitor International

Prevalence of at least daily carbonated soft drink consumption

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
References:World Health Organization. (2017). Adolescent obesity and related behaviours: Trends and inequalities in the who european region, 2002-2014: observations from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) WHO collaborative cross-national study (J. Inchley, D. Currie, J. Jewel, J. Breda, & V. Barnekow, Eds.). World Health Organization. Sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org
Notes:15-year-old adolescents
Definitions:Prevalence of at least daily carbonated soft drink consumption (% of at least daily carbonated soft drink consumption)

Prevalence of confectionery consumption

Adults, 2016

References:Source: Euromonitor International
Definitions:Prevalence of confectionery consumption (Number of 50g confectionery portions/person/month)

Prevalence of sweet/savoury snack consumption

Adults, 2016

References:Source: Euromonitor International
Definitions:Prevalence of sweet/savoury snack consumption (Number of 35g sweet/savoury snack portions/person/month)

Estimated per-capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Prevalence of less-than-daily fruit consumption

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
References:Global School-based Student Health Surveys. Beal et al (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287. Sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily fruit consumption (% less-than-daily fruit consumption)

Prevalence of less-than-daily vegetable consumption

Children, 2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily vegetable consumption (% less-than-daily vegetable consumption)

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per-capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Breast cancer

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, breast, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, cervix uteri, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Health systems

Economic classification: High Income

Health systems summary

Spain has a universal healthcare system that is consistently ranked among the best in the world. The national system (Sistema Nacional de Salud) is primary funded by taxation and is mostly free at point of service. In addition to the national health service, there are other statutory provisions for civil servants, the armed forces and the judiciary. Public sector workers, for example, are eligible to opt out of the public system if they sign up to the government-subsidised health insurance called MUFACE. Despite the comprehensive health coverage in Spain, out of pocket (OOP) payments make up 23.9% of total health expenditure (greater than the European Union average). Most OOP payments are for pharmaceuticals and medical devices.

Spain has the highest life expectancy in the European Union and has relatively low mortality rates from preventable and treatable causes. Obesity, however, has been increasing in recent years.

Indicators

Where is the country’s government in the journey towards defining ‘Obesity as a disease’?Some progress
Where is the country’s healthcare provider in the journey towards defining ‘Obesity as a disease’?Some progress
Is there specialist training available dedicated to the training of health professionals to prevent, diagnose, treat and manage obesity?Yes
Have any taxes or subsidies been put in place to protect/assist/inform the population around obesity?Yes
Are there adequate numbers of trained health professionals in specialties relevant to obesity in urban areas?No
Are there adequate numbers of trained health professionals in specialties relevant to obesity in rural areas?No
Are there any obesity-specific recommendations or guidelines published for adults?Yes
Are there any obesity-specific recommendations or guidelines published for children?Some progress
In practice, how is obesity treatment largely funded?Not known

Perceived barriers to treatment

  • Lack of political will, interest and action
  • Economic crisis
  • Stigma
  • Poor health literacy and behaviour
  • Cultural norms and traditions

Summary of stakeholder feedback

While seemingly not yet considered to be a disease by the government and healthcare providers, Spain has several prevention policies in place related to obesity. These include school-level interventions around physical activity and diet, and a sugar tax in the Catalonia region. Stakeholders and patients felt that obesity could be better prevented by the provision of cheaper fruit and vegetables, perhaps through subsidies.

Overall, the health system is generally not thought to be working in terms of obesity treatment. Having said that, one stakeholder felt that primary care centres were becoming better at addressing obesity, with several new and effective programmes being implemented. Generally, though, it appears that a high BMI is required before treatment if offered, and even then, there are long waiting lists. Long waiting lists are said to be one of the reasons individuals leave the health system without treatment.

There are insufficient numbers of obesity professionals in both urban and rural areas but in rural areas, there is said to be no possibility of receiving specialised treatment. There is no specialised obesity training available, except for training for bariatric surgeons.

Based on interviews/survey returns from 3 stakeholders

Last updated: June 2020

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Actions

Sugar sweetened beverage tax

Two-tier sugar sweetened beverage tax.

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Gobierno de España
Find out more:www.hacienda.gob.es
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Gobierno de España. Impuesto bebidas azucaradas envasadas CATALUÑA. Available from: http://www.hacienda.gob.es/Documentacion/Publico/PortalVarios/FinanciacionTerritorial/Autonomica/TributosPropios/Normativa/2017/14.%20Impuesto%20bebidas%20azucaradas%20envasadas%20CATALU%C3%91A%202017.pdf. [Accessed 13 December 2018].

Recommendations for the population on physical activity and reduced sedentary lifestyle

These recommendations aim to raise awareness of the population which is the amount, intensity, frequency and duration of physical activity that benefits health. They are based on existing international recommendations and on scientific evidence, with the ultimate goal that all people should be more active physically.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad. Actividad Física para la Salud y Reducción del Sedentarismo. Recomendaciones para la población. Estrategia de Promoción de la Salud y Prevención en el SNS. Madrid, 2015

Take action, advise health

Take action, advise health (Acta­vate, aconseja salud) is a free online course for health professionals, that enables them to prescribe physical activity through the institutions of the Spanish National Health System.

Categories:Training
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports
Linked document:Download linked document

European Union (EU) Action Plan on Childhood Obesity 2014-2020

EU Action plan. To contribute to halting the rise in overweight and obesity in children and young people (0-18 years) by 2020

Categories:Transnational Obesity Strategies/Policy or Action Plan
Year(s):2014-2020
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Ministry of Health
Find out more:ec.europa.eu
Linked document:Download linked document
References:EU Action Plan on Childhood Table of contents [Internet]. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/nutrition_physical_activity/docs/childhoodobesity_actionplan_2014_2020_en.pdf ‌

Som la pera

'Som la pera' is one of the European Youth Tackling Obesity (EYTO) campaigns and is a school-based intervention using events and activities to encourage healthy living. It involves challenges designed by young people to increase physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:European Youth Tackling Obesity (EYTO) project
Find out more:www.eyto.org.uk
References:European Youth Tackling Obesity (EYTO) project. http://www.eyto.org.uk/about/the-campaigns/home (last accessed 10 Feb 2016)

White Paper on Nutrition in Spain

This white paper seeks to be a pioneering tool in Spain and to be both a nutritional resource for academia, scientis and policy makers.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government
Find out more:www.aecosan.msssi.gob.es
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Agencia Española de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición y el Instituto Nacional de Consumo

FESNAD and SEESO recommendations for prevention and treatment for overweight and obesity in adults

Evidence based Nutritional recommendations for preventing and treating overweight and obesity (developed by two Spanish scientific associations, FESNAD (Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Food and Dietetic Associations) and SEEDO (Spanish Association for the Study of Obesity)).

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2012 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:FESNAD (Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Food and Dietetic Associations) and SEEDO (Spanish Association for the Study of Obesity)
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Fernández Manuel M. G, Lesmes I.B, Marset J.B, Izquierdo J.Q, Sala X.F, Salas-Salvadó J; FESNAD-SEEDO consensus group (2012). Evidence-based nutritional recommendations for the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults (FESNAD-SEEDO consensus document). The role of diet in obesity treatment (III/III). Nutrición Hospitalaria. 27(3). pp. 833-64.

Law on Food Safety and Nutrition

The Law aims to regulate food safety and certain aspects of food advertising and seeks in particular to protect children and to curb obesity.

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government
Find out more:www.congreso.es
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Information collated as part of an earlier project between 2008-2011. See http://www.worldobesity.org/what-we-do/policy-prevention/projects/marketing-children/ project/

Integral Plan for Physical Activity and Sport Promotion (Plan Integral de Actividad Fisica y el Deporte)

The Comprehensive Plan for Physical Activity and Sport is a program that aims to promote universal access to quality sport for the whole population.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2010-2020
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:High Council for Sport
Find out more:repositori.uji.es
Linked document:Download linked document

Clinical Practice Guideline for the Prevention and Treatment of Childhood and Juvenile Obesity

A set of clinical practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of obesity in children and juveniles in Spain.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2009 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Ministry for Health and Social Policy_x000D__x000D_
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Working Group of the Guideline for the Prevention and Treatment of Childhood and Juvenile Obesity; Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre, coordinator; Clinical Practice Guideline for the Prevention and Treatment of Childhood and Juvenile Obesity; CPGs: Quality Plan for the Spanish National Healthcare System of the Spanish Ministry for Health and Social Policy; Catalan Agency for Health Technology Assessment, 2009; Clinical Practice Guideline: CAHTA no. 2007/25.

Healthy eating as a family

Aims to promote healthy eating as a family by educating teachers and parents.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2009 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Hispacoop, the Spanish Confederation on Consumers and Users' Cooperatives
Find out more:www.menjasaenfamilia.org

Actividad física y salud en la infancia y la adolescencia Guía para todas las personas que participan en su educación

Guide for all educations on Physical Activity and Health in Children and Adolescents Guide

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2006 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health
Linked document:Download linked document

Self-Regulatory Code on Food Advertising to Children (CODIGO PAOS)

This is a multi-stakeholder initiative developed by the food industry in consultation with the government and the advertising industry. It includes a copy advice procedure for pre-vetting advertisements, and enforcement and monitoring bodies.

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2005 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:The Spanish Federation of Food and Drink Industries (FIAB) issued the CODIGO PAOS, with support by the Ministry of Health & Consumer Affairs, and the advertising self-regulatory organisation.
Find out more:estaticos.cocacola.es
Linked document:Download linked document

IMED Multi-disciplinary unit for Obesity treatment

IMED Hospitales has set up the Multidisciplinary Unit for the Treatment of Obesity, a complete unit to solve the problems of obesity and overweight. A team of surgeons, endoscopists, psychologists, psychiatrists, endocrinologists, nutritionists, anesthesiologists, aesthetic doctors and plastic surgeons who work together to provide customized and effective solutions.

Categories:Evidence of Multidisciplinary Intervention
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:IMED Elche
Find out more:www.imedelche.com
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Available from: http://www.imedelche.com/fr/pagina/unidad-de-tratamiento-integral-de-la-obesidad/ [accessed August 2019].

NAOS strategy Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Prevention

Aims to promote a healthy diet and increase physical activity.

Categories:Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action
Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:The Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs, the Ministry of Education and Science, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, the Autonomous Communities, Town Councils, foundations, professionals, businesses, NGO’s and consumer associations.
Linked document:Download linked document

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