• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Health systems
  • Actions
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:82821
Area covered:National
References:2015 Philippine Anthropometric Survey. http://enutrition.fnri.dost.gov.ph/site/preview.php?xx=%20uploads/2015_ANTHROPOMETRIC_SURVEY.pdf
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:172,323
Area covered:National
References:8th National Nutrition Survey. https://fnri.dost.gov.ph/index.php/19-nutrition-statistic/175-national-nutrition-survey#8th-nns (Last accessed 28.09.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2003

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:11696
References:http://www.fnri.dost.gov.ph/files/fnri%20files/nns/factsandfigures2003/anthropometric.pdf (last accessed June 14th 2011)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1998

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:9299
Area covered:National
References:Data provided by the Philippean Depatment of Health, Dr C. Barbu, data reanalysed by Dr Charmaine Duante.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1993

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:9585
References:Solon FS. Nutrition related chronic diseases in the Philippines. Makati city, Philippines: Nutrition Center of the Philippines Report Series, vol 2, No.1, cited in Reference 53
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:11-19
Sample size:33,086
Area covered:National
References:2015 Philippine Anthropometric Survey. http://enutrition.fnri.dost.gov.ph/site/preview.php?xx=%20uploads/2015_ANTHROPOMETRIC_SURVEY.pdf
Notes:Not IOTF International Cut Off. WHO +2,+3SD
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2003

Survey type:Measured
Age:12
Area covered:National
References:Philippine facts and figures 2003, Part II. Anthropometric Facts and Figures, FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARCH INSTITUTE, Department of Science and Technology
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 1998

Survey type:Measured
Age:12
Area covered:National
References:Philippine facts and figures 2003, Part II. Anthropometric Facts and Figures, FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARCH INSTITUTE, Department of Science and Technology
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 1993

Survey type:Measured
Age:12
Area covered:National
References:Philippine facts and figures 2003, Part II. Anthropometric Facts and Figures, FOOD AND NUTRITION RESEARCH INSTITUTE, Department of Science and Technology
Cutoffs:Other

Overweight/obesity by age

Adults, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:82821
Area covered:National
References:2015 Philippine Anthropometric Survey. http://enutrition.fnri.dost.gov.ph/site/preview.php?xx=%20uploads/2015_ANTHROPOMETRIC_SURVEY.pdf
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:82821
Area covered:National
References:2015 Philippine Anthropometric Survey. http://enutrition.fnri.dost.gov.ph/site/preview.php?xx=%20uploads/2015_ANTHROPOMETRIC_SURVEY.pdf
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:33,086
Area covered:National
References:2015 Philippine Anthropometric Survey. http://enutrition.fnri.dost.gov.ph/site/preview.php?xx=%20uploads/2015_ANTHROPOMETRIC_SURVEY.pdf
Notes:Not IOTF International Cut Off. WHO +2,+3SD
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:33,086
Area covered:National
References:2015 Philippine Anthropometric Survey. http://enutrition.fnri.dost.gov.ph/site/preview.php?xx=%20uploads/2015_ANTHROPOMETRIC_SURVEY.pdf
Notes:Not IOTF International Cut Off. WHO +2,+3SD
Cutoffs:WHO

Overweight/obesity by region

Adults, 2013

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:Large national survey
Area covered:National
References:FOOD and NUTRITION, RESEARCH INSTITUTE, Department of Science and Technology (2015) 2nd NATIONAL NUTRITION SUMMIT:8th NATIONAL NUTRITION SURVEY. “Juan Mission for a Well-Nourished Nation” http://202.90.141.88/NNS/8thNNS.pdf (last accessed 3rd March 2016)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Boys, 2015

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:13-17
Sample size:8761
Area covered:National
References:Global School based Student Health Survey - https://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/gshs/factsheets/en/
Notes:Overweight > +1 SD, < +2SD for BMI by age and sex Obesity > + 2SD Obese for BMI by age and sex
Cutoffs:WHO

Girls, 2015

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:13-17
Sample size:8761
Area covered:National
References:Global School based Student Health Survey - https://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/gshs/factsheets/en/
Notes:Overweight > +1 SD, < +2SD for BMI by age and sex Obesity > + 2SD Obese for BMI by age and sex
Cutoffs:WHO

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Adults, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:82821
Area covered:National
References:2015 Philippine Anthropometric Survey. http://enutrition.fnri.dost.gov.ph/site/preview.php?xx=%20uploads/2015_ANTHROPOMETRIC_SURVEY.pdf
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:10-19
Sample size:32,817
Area covered:National
References:2015 Philippine Anthropometric Survey. http://enutrition.fnri.dost.gov.ph/site/preview.php?xx=%20uploads/2015_ANTHROPOMETRIC_SURVEY.pdf
Notes:Not IOTF International Cut Off. WHO +2,+3SD
Cutoffs:WHO

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Average daily frequency of carbonated soft drink consumption

Children, 2010-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system

Estimated per-capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Prevalence of less-than-daily fruit consumption

Children, 2010-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Global School-based Student Health Surveys. Beal et al (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287. Sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily fruit consumption (% less-than-daily fruit consumption)

Prevalence of less-than-daily vegetable consumption

Children, 2010-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system
Definitions:Prevalence of less-than-daily vegetable consumption (% less-than-daily vegetable consumption)

Average weekly frequency of fast food consumption

Children, 2010-2015

Age:12-17
References:Beal et al. (2019). Global Patterns of Adolescent Fruit, Vegetable, Carbonated Soft Drink, and Fast-food consumption: A meta-analysis of global school-based student health surveys. Food and Nutrition Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0379572119848287 sourced from Food Systems Dashboard http://www.foodsystemsdashboard.org/food-system

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per-capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Breast cancer

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, breast, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, cervix uteri, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Health systems

Economic classification: Lower Middle Income

Health systems summary

A universal health care act was signed in the Philippines in early 2019, legislating a commitment to the provisional of universal health coverage. One of the reforms that is billed to advance UHC is the automatic enrolment of all Filipinos to PhilHealth. Philhealth is a social health insurance programme that was first introduced in 1995, with coverage of the population under it increasing significantly over the past 5 years. Philhealth reimburses both government and private health facilities but has provided individuals limited financial protection to date. As a result, out of pocket payments remain high at over 50% of the total health expenditure (most of which is spend on pharmaceuticals). Like many other countries, the Filipino private health sector has expanded in recent years, partly because of the lack of regulation of for-profit providers.

The Filipino health system remains challenged by preventable infectious diseases such as HIV, TB and measles. At the same time, the Philippines is seeing persistently high smoking rates and rising levels of overweight and obesity.

Indicators

Where is the country’s government in the journey towards defining ‘Obesity as a disease’?Some progress
Where is the country’s healthcare provider in the journey towards defining ‘Obesity as a disease’?Some progress
Is there specialist training available dedicated to the training of health professionals to prevent, diagnose, treat and manage obesity?Some progress
Have any taxes or subsidies been put in place to protect/assist/inform the population around obesity?Yes
Are there adequate numbers of trained health professionals in specialties relevant to obesity in urban areas?Some progress
Are there adequate numbers of trained health professionals in specialties relevant to obesity in rural areas?No
Are there any obesity-specific recommendations or guidelines published for adults?Yes
Are there any obesity-specific recommendations or guidelines published for children?Not known
In practice, how is obesity treatment largely funded?Out of pocket

Perceived barriers to treatment

  • Poor health literacy and behaviour
  • Food cost and availability
  • High cost of out-of-pocket payments
  • Lack of political will, interest and action
  • Influence of food industry
  • Social determinants of health
  • Lack of opportunity for physical activity
  • Obesogenic environment
  • Lack of support

Summary of stakeholder feedback

There is recognition in the Philippines that obesity is a significant issue, but it is still not yet a priority, It is considered more of a risk factor than a disease. Recent reforms and initiatives include the introduction of a tax on sweetened beverages and an obesity programme called “belly gud for health”. Stakeholders praised the extent of cross-sectoral collaboration to address obesity, with actors including the Department of Health, Department of Social Welfare and Development, NGOs and the private sector. Still, stakeholders felt that obesity could be better prevented in Philippines by improved health education and more facilities for physical activity.

There are a range of treatment options for obesity available in the Philippines, but stakeholders reported that only lifestyle and behavioural treatment was covered by social insurance. Despite this, they noted that lifestyle and behavioural treatment was sometimes paid for out of pocket in practice, while pharmacological and surgical treatment is always paid for out of pocket. People living with obesity only appear to enter the health system when they have comorbidities.

The Philippines has a non-communicable disease strategy with an accompanying implementation guide. There are recommendations for healthy and safe weight management by the obesity society, the Philippines Association for the study of Overweight and Obesity.

Based on interviews/survey returns from 4 stakeholders

Last updated: June 2020

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Soft drink tax in Philippines

6 pesos per litre on products using purely caloric and purely non-caloric sweeteners or a mix of both_x000D__x000D_ 12 pesos per litre on products using high fructose corn syrup with or without a caloric or non-caloric sweetener

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Philippine Government
Find out more:taxreform.dof.gov.ph
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion (TRAIN) as Republic. Act (RA) No. 10963

Nutrition Month

Nutrition Month is held every July to create greater awareness on the importance of nutrition among Filipinos (Presidential Decree 491 (1974) or the Nutrition Act of the Philippines. The 2015 (41st) Nutrition Month theme was Timbang iwasto, sa tamang nutrisyon at ehersisyo (Achieve normal weight through proper nutrition and physical activity) and focused on the problem of overweight and obesity.

Categories (partial):Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:National Nutrition Council
Find out more:www.nnc.gov.ph
Linked document:Download linked document

2012 Nutritional Guidelines for Filipinos (Filipino: Mga Gabay sa Wastong Nutrisyon Para sa Pilipino)

Dietary guidelines

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2012 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:The Food and Nutrition Research Institute
Find out more:www.fnri.dost.gov.ph

Front of package labelling

Voluntary front of package labelling

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2012 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Philippines Food and Drug Administration 
Linked document:Download linked document

"Responsible Advertising to Children" Initiative (The Philippine Pledge)

Voluntary self-regulatory marketing pledge

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Philippine Food and Beverage Industry
Find out more:pana.com.ph

Article: Obesity Treatment Recommendations in the Philippines:Perspective on their Utility and Implementation in Clinical Practice

The article briefly reviews the obesity practice recommendations of the Philippine Association for the Study of Overweight and Obesity (PASOO) and the obesity guidelines of the Family Medicine Research Group (FMRG) of the UP-Philippine General Hospital. The two treatment recommendations showed their focus on the primary care setting and several limitations in the development process

Categories (partial):Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Philippine Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Linked document:Download linked document

Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition (PPAN)

This PPAN addresses the following key issues: 1)Hunger 2)Child undernutrition 3)Maternal undernutrition, 4) Deficiencies in iron, iodine and vitamin A, and 5)Obesity and overweight.

Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2011-2016
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:National Nutrition Council
Find out more:www.nnc.gov.ph

PASOO White Paper on Lifestyle Approaches for the Prevention of Obesity

Categories (partial):Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:PASOO
Linked document:Download linked document

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