• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Actions
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:15+
Area covered:National
References:OECD (2015), Overweight or obese population (indicator). doi: 10.1787/86583552-en (Accessed on 17 June 2015) from National Health Nutrition Survey 2012
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:15000
Area covered:National
References:Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. The burden of overweight and obesity in the Asia-Pacific region. Obesity Reviews 2007;8:191-196.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1986-1990

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
References:Yoshiike N, Seino F, Tajima S, Arai Y, Kawano M, Furuhata T, Inoue S. Twenty-year changes in the prevalence of overweight in Japanese adults: The National Nutrition Survey 1976-95. Obesity Reviews 2002;3:183-190
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1981-1985

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
References:Yoshiike N, Seino F, Tajima S, Arai Y, Kawano M, Furuhata T, Inoue S. Twenty-year changes in the prevalence of overweight in Japanese adults: The National Nutrition Survey 1976-95. Obesity Reviews 2002;3:183-190
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1976-1980

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
References:Yoshiike N, Seino F, Tajima S, Arai Y, Kawano M, Furuhata T, Inoue S. Twenty-year changes in the prevalence of overweight in Japanese adults: The National Nutrition Survey 1976-95. Obesity Reviews 2002;3:183-190
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 1996-2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-8
Sample size:56604
Area covered:National
References:Matsushita Y, Yoshiike N, Kaneda F, Yoshita K, Takimoto H. Trends in Childhood obesity in Japan over the last 25 years from the National Nutrition Survey. Obesity Research 2004;12(2):205-214
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3. 56604 = total number included for the duration of the study
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1986-1990

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-8
Sample size:56604
Area covered:National
References:Matsushita Y, Yoshiike N, Kaneda F, Yoshita K, Takimoto H. Trends in Childhood obesity in Japan over the last 25 years from the National Nutrition Survey. Obesity Research 2004;12(2):205-214
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3. 56604 = total number included for the duration of the study
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1976-1980

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-8
Sample size:56604
Area covered:National
References:Matsushita Y, Yoshiike N, Kaneda F, Yoshita K, Takimoto H. Trends in Childhood obesity in Japan over the last 25 years from the National Nutrition Survey. Obesity Research 2004;12(2):205-214
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3. 56604 = total number included for the duration of the study
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by education

Children, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-11
Sample size:397
Area covered:National
References:Kachi Y, Otsuka T, Kawada T. Socioeconomic Status and Overweight: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study of Japanese Children and Adolescents. Journal of Epidemiology. 2015;25(7):463-469. doi:10.2188/jea.JE20140108.
Notes:Prevalence of overweight and obesity by Maternal Education (Paternal Education also available) Overweight, including obesity, was defined by International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Note small sample size.
Cutoffs:WHO

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Children, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-11
Sample size:397
Area covered:National
References:Kachi Y, Otsuka T, Kawada T. Socioeconomic Status and Overweight: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study of Japanese Children and Adolescents. Journal of Epidemiology. 2015;25(7):463-469. doi:10.2188/jea.JE20140108.
Notes:Prevalence of overweight and obesity by household income. Overweight, including obesity, was defined by International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Note small sample size.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-11
Sample size:397
Area covered:National
References:Kachi Y, Otsuka T, Kawada T. Socioeconomic Status and Overweight: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study of Japanese Children and Adolescents. Journal of Epidemiology. 2015;25(7):463-469. doi:10.2188/jea.JE20140108.
Notes:Prevalence of overweight and obesity by Paternal Occupation (Maternal Occupation also available) Overweight, including obesity, was defined by International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs. Note small sample size.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Estimated per-capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per-capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Breast cancer

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, breast, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, cervix uteri, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Actions

Hoken Program (Obesity Policy)

No details available, document in Japanese

Categories:Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Linked document:Download linked document

Health Japan 21 (2nd edition)

National health measures for extending people's healthy life expectancy. This policy includes 53 goals covering nutrition, dietary habits, exercise, smoking cessation, etc

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare
Find out more:www.mhlw.go.jp

School Lunch Program - Shokuiku

Providing food and nutrition education together

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2005 (ongoing)
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries

Walk-to-school policy

Many education boards require students to walk to school if the school is located within a certain distance from the child's home. The walk-to-school practice has helped combat childhood obesity by providing regular physical activity.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):1953 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Government
References:http://www.who.int/kobe_centre/interventions/urban_planning/List-05_ICUH_14047_WTS.pdf (last accessed 29 Feb 2016)

No actions could be found for the above criteria.

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