• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Policies
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2016

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:24586
Area covered:National
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia 2016
Notes:NB. Combined adult data estimated. These estimates were calculated by weighting male and female survey results. Weighting based on World Bank Population % total female 2019 (https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL.FE.ZS - accessed 30.09.20)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-69
Sample size:9801
Area covered:National
References:Ethiopia 2015 STEPS Survey. https://www.who.int/ncds/surveillance/steps/Ethiopia_2015_STEPS_Report.pdf (Last accessed 10.08.20)
Notes:3977 Men, 5823 Women
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2011

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:26614
Area covered:National
References:DHS 2011
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:5901
Area covered:National
References:Demographic Health Survey 2005
Notes:Other married women 15 - 49 years.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:6493
References:SCN (2004). 5th Report on the World Nutrition Situation. Nutrition for Improved Development Outcomes. Appendix 11
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2019

Survey type:Measured
Age:0-5
Sample size:5338
Area covered:National
References:Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) [Ethiopia] and ICF. 2021. Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey 2019: Final Report. Rockville, Maryland, USA: EPHI and ICF. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR363/FR363.pdf (Last accessed 19.05.21)
Notes:Infants.
Definitions:Children whose weight-for-height Z-score is more than two standard deviations (+2 SD) above the median of the reference population are considered overweight.
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:11-15
Sample size:448
Area covered:Regional
References:Desalew A, Mandesh A, Semahegn A. Childhood overweight, obesity and associated factors among primary school children in dire dawa, eastern Ethiopia; a cross-sectional study.BMC Obes. 2017 Jun 1;4:20. doi: 10.1186/s40608-017-0156-2. eCollection 2017.
Notes:Region: Dire Dawa (Eastern Ethiopia), Small sample size, n= 448
Cutoffs:CDC

Overweight/obesity by education

Men, 2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:25629
Area covered:National
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia 2016
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:25629
Area covered:National
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia 2016
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2011

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:27614
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia, 2011
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2011

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:27614
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia, 2011
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:5901
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia, 2005
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Overweight/obesity by age

Adults, 2016

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:25586
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia, 2016
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2011

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:27614
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia, 2011
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2005

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:5901
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia, 2005
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 1987-1995

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:1774
Area covered:National
References:Ferro-Luzzi A, National Institute for Food and Nutrition Research, Rome, Italy. Unpublished data reanalysed 2001
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by region

Men, 2011

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:27614
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia, 2011
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2011

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:27614
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia, 2011
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:5901
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia, 2005
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2019

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:5338
Area covered:National
References:Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) [Ethiopia] and ICF. 2021. Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey 2019: Final Report. Rockville, Maryland, USA: EPHI and ICF. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR363/FR363.pdf (Last accessed 19.05.21)
Notes:Infants.
Definitions:Children whose weight-for-height Z-score is more than two standard deviations (+2 SD) above the median of the reference population are considered overweight.
Cutoffs:Other

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Men, 2011

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:27614
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia, 2011
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2011

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:27614
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia, 2011
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:15-49
Sample size:5901
References:Demographic Health Survey, Ethiopia, 2005
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2016

Survey type:Measured
Age:11-15
Sample size:448
Area covered:Regional - Dire Dawa
References:Desalew A, Mandesh A, Semahegn A. Childhood overweight, obesity and associated factors among primary school children in dire dawa, eastern Ethiopia; a cross-sectional study.BMC Obes. 2017 Jun 1;4:20. doi: 10.1186/s40608-017-0156-2. eCollection 2017.
Notes:CDC Cut off SMALL SAMPLE
Cutoffs:CDC

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Estimated per capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

% Infants exclusively breastfed 0-5 months

Children, 2005-2020

Area covered:National
References:Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey 2019: Final Report. Rockville, Maryland, USA: EPHI and ICF, 2021.
Notes:See UNICEF website for further survey information. Available at : https://data.unicef.org/resources/dataset/infant-young-child-feeding/ (last accessed 28.9.21) Citation: United Nations Children’s Fund, Division of Data, Analysis, Planning and Monitoring (2021). Global UNICEF Global Databases: Infant and Young Child Feeding: Exclusive breastfeeding, New York, September 2021.
Definitions:% exclusively breastfed 0-5 months

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Breast cancer

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, breast, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, cervix uteri, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2021

Age:20-79
Area covered:National
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation.  IDF Diabetes Atlas, 10th edn. Brussels, Belgium:International Diabetes Federation, 2021. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Age-adjusted comparative prevalence of diabetes, %

Adults, 2019

Age:20-79
References:Reproduced with kind permission International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 9th edn. Brussels,Belgium: 2019. Available at: https://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Policies, Interventions and Actions

Ethiopia: Food-Based Dietary Guidelines–2022

The development of the Ethiopian dietary guidelines was led and coordinated by the Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI), the technical arm of the Ministry of Health. Stakeholders from national and international organizations were involved in their development. Government institutions included the Ministries of Health, Agriculture, and Education. The development process was supported by the following international organizations: the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Livestock Institute (ILRI), Wageningen University and Research (WUR), and the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health. Representing the multi-sectoral engagement in their development and implementation, the guidelines have been endorsed by the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Agriculture, and the Ministry of Education.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2022 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health, Ministry of Agriculture, and Ministry of Education.
Linked document:Download linked document
References:https://www.fao.org/nutrition/education/food-dietary-guidelines/regions/countries/ethiopia/en/

Excise Tax Proclamation No. 1186/2020

Excise Tax to be paid on: - Fats and oils - Sugar and sugar confectionery - Chocolate and food preparation containing cocoa - Soft drink powder - Beverages and spirits Approved by the Ministry of Finance and adopted from March 2020. (Available in Ethiopian language with translation in English language)

Categories:Taxation/Subsidies on Food or Beverages or law relating to public health
Year(s):2020 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Finance
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/40429 (last accessed 04.08.22)

National food and nutrition policy

Comprehensive Nutrition strategy (including overweight/obesity) adopted from 2016.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2016-2030
Target age group:Adults and children
References:Information provided with kind permission of WHO Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA): https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/39358 (last accessed 04.08.22)

Alive & Thrive (Promoting Breastfeeding)

Alive and Thrive (A&T) is an initiative to save lives, prevent illness, and ensure healthy growth and development through optimal maternal nutrition, breastfeeding, and complementary feeding practices.

Categories:Evidence of Breastfeeding promotion or related activity
Year(s):2009 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Alive & Thrive
References:https://www.aliveandthrive.org/en

National NCD Targets for Ethiopia

Halt the rise in obesity by 2025

Categories:Evidence of Obesity Target
Target age group:Adults and children
Linked document:Download linked document

No actions could be found for the above criteria.

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