• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Health systems
  • Actions
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:18-79
Sample size:5071
Area covered:National
References:Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) 2017. Available from: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=1310037301&pickMembers%5B0%5D=3.3. [Accessed 21 February 2019].
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2007-2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-69
Sample size:3072
Area covered:National
References:Shields M, Tremblay MS, Laviolette M, Craig C, Janssen I and Connor Gorber S. Fitness of Canadian adults: Results from the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 82-003-XPE • Health Reports, Vol. 21, no. 1, March 2010
Notes:IASO age standardised data to World Standard Population
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:23985
Area covered:National
References:Tjepkema M. (2006). Adult obesity. Health Report, 17(3), 9 - 25.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1992

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-69
Sample size:Not specified
References:Belanger-Ducharme F, Tremblay A. Prevalence of obesity in Canada. Obesity Reviews 2005;6:183-186
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1986-1992

Survey type:Measured
Age:18-74
Sample size:19841
References:Macdonald SM, Reeder BA, Chen Y, Despres JP. Obesity in Canada: a descriptive analysis. Can Med Assoc. 1997;157(Suppl 1):S3-S9
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1970

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-69
Sample size:Not specified
References:Belanger-Ducharme F, Tremblay A. Prevalence of obesity in Canada. Obesity Reviews 2005;6:183-186
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:5071
Area covered:National
References:Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) 2017. Available from: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=1310037301&pickMembers%5B0%5D=3.3. [Accessed 6 March 2019].
Notes:WHO cut-offs used.
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2012-2013

Survey type:Measured
Age:3-19
Sample size:2460
Area covered:National
References:Rodd, C. and Sharma, A.K. (2016) 'Recent trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Canadian children', CMAJ, 188(13): E313-E320. Available at: http://www.cmaj.ca/content/188/13/E313
Notes:Overweight and obesity defined by WHO criteria
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2009-2011

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:2123
Area covered:National
References:Roberts KC, Shields M, de Groh M et al. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: Results from the 2009-2011 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Statistics Canada 2012 (http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-003-x/2012003/article/11706-eng.pdf (last accessed 18th June 2015)
Notes:IOTF International Cut Off Points
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-17
Sample size:6184
Area covered:National
References:Shields M. 2006. Overweight and obesity among children and youth. Health Reports 17(3), 28 - 44.
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by education

Adults, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-64
Sample size:8383
Area covered:National
References:Canadian Community Survey 2004
Notes:Treat Post Secondary Obese figure with caution
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2002-2003

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Sample size:2221
Area covered:National
References:Siddiqi A, Brown R, Nguyen QC, Loopstra R, Kawachi I. Cross-national comparison of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity in the United States and Canada. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2015;14:116. doi:10.1186/s12939-015-0251-2.
Notes:SELF REPORTED DATA
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2002-2003

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Sample size:2221
Area covered:National
References:Siddiqi A, Brown R, Nguyen QC, Loopstra R, Kawachi I. Cross-national comparison of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity in the United States and Canada. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2015;14:116. doi:10.1186/s12939-015-0251-2.
Notes:SELF REPORTED DATA
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-17
Sample size:8661
Area covered:National
References:Canadian Community Survey 2004
Notes:Treat Post Secondary Obese figure with caution IOTF International Cut off used
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by age

Children, 2009-2011

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:2123
Area covered:National
References:Roberts KC, Shields M, de Groh M, Aziz A and Gilbert JA. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: Results from the 2009 to 2011 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 82-003-XPE • Health Reports, Vol. 23, no. 3, September 2012
Notes:IOTF International Cut-off Points
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by region

Men, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:Canadian Community Health Survey 2014, Statistics Canada http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/health84b-eng.htm (accessed 27th Feb 2018)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:Canadian Community Health Survey 2014, Statistics Canada http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/health84b-eng.htm (accessed 27th Feb 2018)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:12428
Area covered:National
References:2004 Canadian Community Survey, Statistics Canada, Health Reports Vol 17 No 3, August 2006
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2014

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:12-17
Area covered:National Survey
References:Canadian Community Health Survey 2014, Statistics Canada http://www.statcan.gc.ca/tables-tableaux/sum-som/l01/cst01/health84b-eng.htm (accessed 27th Feb 2018)
Notes:IOTF International Cut Off's Applied Some regions supplied % but results considered unreliable as sample too small
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Men, 2002-2003

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Sample size:2221
Area covered:National
References:Siddiqi A, Brown R, Nguyen QC, Loopstra R, Kawachi I. Cross-national comparison of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity in the United States and Canada. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2015;14:116. doi:10.1186/s12939-015-0251-2.
Notes:SELF REPORTED DATA
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2002-2003

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Sample size:2221
Area covered:National
References:Siddiqi A, Brown R, Nguyen QC, Loopstra R, Kawachi I. Cross-national comparison of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity in the United States and Canada. International Journal for Equity in Health. 2015;14:116. doi:10.1186/s12939-015-0251-2.
Notes:SELF REPORTED DATA
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-17
Sample size:8661
Area covered:National
References:Canadian Community Survey 2004
Notes:Treat Low income figures with caution (see paper for full details) IOTF International Cut off used
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2000-2001

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:5-17
Sample size:11455
Area covered:National
References:Oliver LN, Hayes MV. Neighbourhood socio-economic status and the prevalence of overweight Canadian children and youth. Can J Public Health. 2005 Nov-Dec;96(6):415-20
Notes:In this study, overweight (includes obese) and obese defined by cut-off points from Cole et al. Neighbourhood socioeconomic data were obtained from the Statistics Canada 2001 Dissemination Area databases and SES quartiles constructed using a composite of socio-economic variables.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Estimated per-capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per-capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Breast cancer

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, breast, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, cervix uteri, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014-2019

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014-2019

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Health systems

Economic classification: High Income

Health systems summary

The Canadian Health Act (CHA) was passed in 1984. The aim of the CHA was to ensure that all Canadian citizens had ‘free at the point of care’ for approved healthcare needs. Now, almost all Canadians’ healthcare is provided for by Medicare, a publicly funded, single-payer health care system. If a treatment is classified as ‘medically necessary’ it must be funded through the government funded Medicare system. Medicare plans, however, do not cover pharmaceuticals, home care or long-term care costs. These additional costs are required to be covered by supplementary health insurance.

Approximately 70% of total health expenditure is publicly sourced (primarily through general taxation). Around half of the remaining 30% come from out of pocket payments by patients.

Indicators

Where is the country’s government in the journey towards defining ‘Obesity as a disease’?Some progress
Where is the country’s healthcare provider in the journey towards defining ‘Obesity as a disease’?Some progress
Is there specialist training available dedicated to the training of health professionals to prevent, diagnose, treat and manage obesity?Some progress
Have any taxes or subsidies been put in place to protect/assist/inform the population around obesity?Yes
Are there adequate numbers of trained health professionals in specialties relevant to obesity in urban areas?No
Are there adequate numbers of trained health professionals in specialties relevant to obesity in rural areas?No
Are there any obesity-specific recommendations or guidelines published for adults?Yes
Are there any obesity-specific recommendations or guidelines published for children?Yes
In practice, how is obesity treatment largely funded?Out of pocket

Perceived barriers to treatment

  • Lack of training for healthcare professionals
  • Obesity not recognised as a disease
  • Lack of treatment facilities

Summary of stakeholder feedback

While the Canadian Medical Association classifies obesity as a disease, the Canadian Government does not. Official recognition of obesity as a chronic disease by the government would ensure that obesity was included within the chronic disease treatment portfolio so there would be more funds and incentives to treat.

Though the current health system should theoretically allow people with obesity to receive health care in a structured and systematic way, stakeholders suggest that obesity is not effectively managed within the current health system. The availability of treatment varies widely between provinces and territories, staff are inadequately trained and there is a lack of multi-disciplinary teams despite it being widely recognised by healthcare practitioners to be crucial for successful obesity management.

Stakeholders report that individuals often enter the system via the emergency room and then are not referred onto appropriate care. When they are referred onto care, the availability of weight loss programmes and bariatric treatments is inconsistent and often subject to long waiting times in the public sector (particularly for the latter). As a result, those that can afford to go abroad for bariatric treatment do so and much of the population use unregulated and expensive weight-loss service providers.

Stakeholders also reported that many health care practitioners feel ill-equipped to treat obesity and feel that existing government guidelines are outdated. It was highlighted however that the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care published prevention, treatment and management guidelines for adults and children in primary care in 2015.

Based on interviews/survey returns from 4 stakeholders

Last updated: June 2020

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Obesity in adults: a clinical practice guideline

The Canadian Adult Obesity Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) provide a much-needed evidence- and experience-based, patient-centred framework for healthcare professionals, patients and policy makers. They represent the first comprehensive update in Canadian obesity guidelines since 2007, and perhaps the most extensive review of published evidence yet conducted in obesity worldwide.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2020 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Obesity Canada and the Canadian Association of Bariatric Physicians and Surgeons
Find out more:obesitycanada.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Wharton, S., Lau, D.C., Vallis, M., Sharma, A.M., Biertho, L., Campbell-Scherer, D., Adamo, K., Alberga, A., Bell, R., Boulé, N. and Boyling, E., 2020. Obesity in adults: a clinical practice guideline. CMAJ, 192(31), pp.E875-E891.

Bill - S-228

Public Bill (Senate) S-228 is an Act to amend the Food and Drugs Act (prohibiting food and beverage marketing directed at children). It states that 'no person shall advertise unhealthy food in a manner that is directed primarily at children'.

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Canadian Senate
Find out more:www.parl.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:LEGISinfo - Senate Public Bill S-228 (42-1) [Internet]. Parl.ca. 2015 [cited 2020 Jan 9]. Available from: https://www.parl.ca/LegisInfo/BillDetails.aspx?billId=8439397&Language=E

ParticipACTION 150 Play List

ParticipACTION is a national non-profit organisation whose mission is to help Canadians sit less and move more. The ParticipACTION 150 Play List is a programme launched in 2017 listing 150 physical activities and challenges to Canadians in communities, schools, and workplaces to see how many different activities they can complete in 2017.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:ParticipACTION
Find out more:www.participaction.com
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Participaction.com. 2020f [cited 2020 Jul 22]. Available from: https://www.participaction.com/en-ca/programs/150-play-list

Health policies in Canada

Overview of strategies in place to prevent NCDs.

Categories:Evidence of NCD strategy
Health Effectiveness Reviews (obesity related)
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:OECD policy health review
Find out more:www.oecd.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Health Policy in Canada January 2016 [Internet]. 2016c. Available from: http://www.oecd.org/health/health-systems/Health-Policy-in-Canada-January-2016.pdf

Sip Smart BC

An Agreement between the Childhood Obesity Foundation (COF) and BC Pediatric Society (BCPS) enables COF to use the Sip Smart! BC™ Trademark and Copyright to deliver this resource for Grade 4-6 students. The Sip Smart! BC™ update was a partnership of the BC Pediatric Society and the B.C. Government and was made possible through funding from the Provincial Health Services Authority. "Sip Smart! BCâ„¢ is an educational program that encourages healthier beverage choices by teaching BC kids about the sugar in drinks and how it affects their bodies. "

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Partnership including the Canadian Society of Exercise Physiology (CSEP) and ParticipACTION
Find out more:sipsmart.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Sip Smart – Healthy Drink Choices [Internet]. [cited 2020 Jul 22]. Available from: https://sipsmart.ca/

Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide.

These are guidelines to help reduce the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, certain types of cancer and osteoporosis in addition to providing health benefits.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:The Federal Ministry of Health (Health Canada)
Find out more:healthycanadians.gc.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Canada H. Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide - First Nations, Inuit and Métis [Internet]. aem. 2007 [cited 2020 Jul 22]. Available from: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/reports-publications/eating-well-canada-food-guide-first-nations-inuit-metis.html

Evidence review for dietary guidance: Summary of results and implications for Canad's Food Guide

The Evidence Review Cycle for Dietary Guidance (ERC) is Health Canada's systematic approach to gathering, assessing, and analyzing data relevant to dietary guidance

Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Minister of Health Canada, Health Canada
Find out more:www.canada.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Canada H. Evidence Review for Dietary Guidance: Summary of Results and Implications for Canada’s Food Guide [Internet]. aem. 2016 [cited 2020 Jul 22]. Available from: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/publications/food-nutrition/evidence-review-dietary-guidance-summary-results-implications-canada-food-guide.html

Healthy Menu Choices Act

This Act requires owners and operators of food premises to display the number of calories in each standard food item sold at the premises. Note that the Law comes into force on January 1, 2017.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government
Find out more:www.canlii.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:SO 2015, c 7, Sch 1 | Healthy Menu Choices Act, 2015 [Internet]. www.canlii.org. [cited 2020r Jul 22]. Available from: https://www.canlii.org/en/on/laws/stat/so-2015-c-7-sch-1/latest/so-2015-c-7-sch-1.html

Recommendations for growth monitoring, and prevention and management of overweight and obesity in children and youth in primary care

Guidelines on preventing overweight and obesity in children. The current guideline provides recommendations for growth monitoring and prevention of overweight and obesity in healthy-weight children and adolescents aged 17 years and younger in primary care settings, and guidance for primary care practitioners on the effectiveness of overweight and obesity management in children and youth aged 2 to 17 years.

Categories:Health Effectiveness Reviews (obesity related)
Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Categories (partial):Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Parkin P, Connor Gorber S, Shaw E, Bell N, Jaramillo A, Tonelli M, Brauer P; Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care.
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Parkin P, Connor Gorber S, Shaw E, Bell N, Jaramillo A, Tonelli M, Brauer P; Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. (2015). Recommendations for growth monitoring, and prevention_x000D__x000D_ and management of overweight and obesity in children and youth in primary care. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 187(6). pp. 411-21.

Recommendations for prevention of weight gain and use of behavioural and pharmacologic interventions to manage overweight and obesity in adults in primary care

The objective of this guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for structured interventions aimed at preventing weight gain in adults of normal weight and to provide recommendations for behavioural and pharmacologic interventions for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity in adults, including those at risk of type 2 diabetes. Strategies for maintaining health, such as increased physical fitness, that did not emphasize or consider weight loss, were not reviewed. The guideline does not apply to people with a BMI score of 40 or greater, who may benefit from specialized bariatric programs. This document updates prior guidelines by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, which were published in 1999 on treatment of obesity14 and in 2006 on prevention of obesity.1

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Non-national obesity strategies
Categories (partial):Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. (2015). Recommendations for prevention of weight gain and use of behavioural and pharmacologic interventions to manage overweight and obesity in adults in primary care. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 187(3). pp. 184-95.

Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (Canada Pledge)

This is an industry self-regulatory framework led by Canadian food and beverage companies

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2014 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Advertising Standards Canada (ASC)
Find out more:adstandards.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:CANADIAN CHILDREN’S FOOD AND BEVERAGE ADVERTISING INITIATIVE Uniform Nutrition Criteria White Paper [Internet]. 2014a. Available from: https://adstandards.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/CAIUniformNutritionCriteriaWhitePaper-EN-Nov-2018.pdf

Clinical best practice guidelines for primary prevention of childhood obesity

Guidelines on primary prevention of childhood obesity.

Categories:Non-national obesity strategies
Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2014 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario
Find out more:rnao.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario. (2014). Clinical Best Practice Guidelines; Primary Prevention_x000D__x000D_ of Childhood Obesity. International Affairs and Best practice guidelines. Available from: https://rnao.ca/bpg/guidelines/primary-prevention-childhood-obesity. [Accessed 7th January 2019].

Public Health Ontario Strategic Plan

A comprehensive plan, a strong mix of programs and services to serve our clients, and our dedicated and talented people, PHO will continue to make substantive and enduring contributions to the health and safety of all Ontarians.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2014-2019
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Public Health Ontario
Find out more:www.publichealthontario.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Strategic Plan [Internet]. Public Health Ontario. [cited 2020w Jul 22]. Available from: https://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/about/corporate-reporting/strategic-plan

Active Canada 20/20

Physical Activity Strategy and Change Agenda for Canada.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2012 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:ParticipACTION
Find out more:www.ualberta.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Spence JC, Faulkner G, Bradstreet CC, Duggan M, Tremblay MS. Active Canada 20/20: A physical activity plan for Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 2015 Nov;106(8):e470–3. ‌

Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines and Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines

Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour guidelines for the following age groups: Early Year (0-4yrs), Children (5-11yrs and 12-17yrs), Adults (18-64yrs) and older Adults (65yrs+). The Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines were released in January 2011 by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) and replace the previous guidelines.[1] These guidelines were updated and released in June 2016. The Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) has endorsed these new guidelines and ParticipACTION has played a key role in their promotion and dissemination

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2012 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Canadian Society for Endocrine Physiology (CSEP)
Find out more:www.csep.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology - Home [Internet]. www.csep.ca. [cited 2020d Jul 21]. Available from: http://www.csep.ca/english/view.asp?x=804

Eat Well campaign

A campaign which aims to improve the understanding of healthy eating in Canada.

Categories:Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action
Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Evidence of NCD strategy
Industry/Government regulations - voluntary /pledges
Health Effectiveness Reviews (obesity related)
Evidence of Multidisciplinary Intervention
Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2011
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government of Canada
Find out more:www.canada.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Canada.ca [Internet]. Canada.ca. 2019. Available from: https://www.canada.ca/home.html

Guidelines for Overweight and Obesity in Adults: Diagnosis and Management

Guidelines providing primary care providers with definitions for overweight and obese classifications in_x000D__x000D_ non-pregnant adults aged 19 and older and information on the diagnosis and management of obesity.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Government of British Colombia
Find out more:www2.gov.bc.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Government of British Colombia:Guidelines & Protocols advisory committee. 2011. Overweight and Obese Adults: Diagnosis and Management. Available from: https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/health/practitioner-pro/bc-guidelines/obesity.pdf. [Accessed 18 December 2018].

Hamilton Healthy Food and Beverage Policy

This policy aims to support the City of Hamilton employee health by making healthy food and beverage choices the easier choice. It requires that 75% of food and beverages offered at worksite cafeterias are healthy choices and that all food and beverage choices are free of industrially produced trans fats.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care
Find out more:opha.on.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:The Nutrition Resource Centre [Internet]. OPHA. 2015b [cited 2020 Jul 22]. Available from: https://opha.on.ca/Nutrition-Resource-Centre/NRC-Navigator/Resources/City-of-Hamilton-s-Corporate-Food-and-Beverage-Pol.aspx

Active for Life

Active for Life is a Canadian not-for-profit social enterprise founded by B2ten. It is a national initiative created to help parents give their children the right start in life through the development of physical literacy.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:B2ten
Find out more:activeforlife.com
References:About - Active For Life [Internet]. Active For Life. 2012 [cited 2019 Nov 13]. Available from: https://activeforlife.com/about/

Canadian Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) clinical practice guideline for Obesity in Pregnancy - 2010

Recommendations for the counselling and management of obesity in pregnancy. To review the evidence and provide recommendations for the counselling and management of obese parturients

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Categories (partial):Non-national obesity strategies
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Davies, G.A.L, Maxwell, C.M, and Mcleod, L.
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Davies, G.A.L, Maxwell, C.M, and Mcleod, L. (2010). SOGC Clinical Practice Guideline.Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada. 110 (2). pp. 165-173.

Curbing Childhood Obesity: A Federal, Provincial and Territorial Framework for Action to Promote Healthy Weights

This is a framework consisting of 3 key strategies to promote healthy weights in children.

Categories:Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action
Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Public Health Agency of Canada
Find out more:www.phac-aspc.gc.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Public. Curbing Childhood Obesity: A Federal, Provincial and Territorial Framework for Action to Promote Healthy Weights - Canada.ca [Internet]. Canada.ca. 2010. Available from: https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/health-promotion/healthy-living/curbing-childhood-obesity-federal-provincial-territorial-framework.html

Nutrition Facts Education Campaign

The Nutrition Facts Education Campaign is a multi-media campaign that helps consumers understand and use the information on the Nutrition Facts table and the % Daily Value.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2010 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Health Canada’s Office of Nutrition Policy and Promotion
Find out more:www.fcpc.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Food & Consumer Products of Canada > Home [Internet]. www.fcpc.ca. [cited 2020 Jul 22]. Available from: https://www.fcpc.ca/

Eat Smart Meet Smart

A document to help provide guidance on healthy eating at work, meetings, events and conferences.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2008 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Western and Northern Canadian Collaborative for Healthy Living
Find out more:www2.gov.bc.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:How to Plan and Host Healthy Meetings, Events and Conferences [Internet]. Available from: https://stayactiveeathealthy.ca/wp-content/uploads/formidable/6/eat-smart-meet-smart.pdf

Walk BC

Supported walking groups with step-by-step tools and resources for a healthier life.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2007 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:A joint initiative between the Heart & Stroke Foundation of BC & Yukon and the BC Recreation & Parks Association (BCRPA). It was one of four initiatives under the Physical Activity Strategy.
Find out more:www.walkbc.ca
References:Home | Walk BC [Internet]. www.walkbc.ca. [cited 2020m Jul 22]. Available from: https://www.walkbc.ca/

2006 Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children

Canadian guidelines on the prevention and management of obesity at the individual and population levels.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Non-national obesity strategies
Year(s):2006 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Lau, D.C.W, Douketis, J.D, Morrison, K.M, Hramiak, I.M, Sharma, A.M, Ur, E, for members of the Obesity Canada Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Panel
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Lau, D.C.W, Douketis, J.D, Morrison, K.M, Hramiak, I.M, Sharma, A.M, Ur, E, for members of the Obesity Canada Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Panel. (2007). 2006 Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 176 (8). pp. 1–117.

A healthy city is an active city

This guide is designed to help city leaders create a plan for physical activity, active living and sport in their city or community. It can be used by local governments alone; however, efforts to develop and maintain active cities will be more successful if they take an integrated approach and involve a range of groups, including city departments, nongovernmental organizations, schools and educators, the health sector, the private sector and residents themselves. It is important that elected officials and neighbourhood leaders champion and endorse the plan.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2006 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:WHO
Find out more:www.euro.who.int
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Home [Internet]. www.euro.who.int. [cited 2020j Jul 22]. Available from: https://www.euro.who.int

BC Policy: Healthier Choices in Vending Machines in B.C. Public Buildings

The Healthier Choices in Vending Machines in BC Public Buildings policy sets minimum nutrient standards for pre-packaged food and beverages so a range of healthier options are available in public buildings. Nutrient criteria for the policy are based on the Guidelines for Food and Beverage Sales in British Columbia Schools. The policy came into effect in 2006 and was updated in 2014.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Categories (partial):Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Industry/Government regulations - voluntary /pledges
Year(s):2006 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government of British Columbia
Find out more:www2.gov.bc.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Healthier Choices in Vending Machines in BC Public Buildings [Internet]. Available from: https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/health/managing-your-health/healthy-eating/vending-policy-2014.pdf

Ontario's Action Plan for Healthy Eating & Active Living

A policy which aims to reduce chronic disease by targeting nutrition and physical activity (including active transportation). The strategies of the plan are to raise healthy children and youth, build healthy communities, champion healthy public policy, and promote public awareness and engagement.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2006 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health
Find out more:collections.ola.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Ontario’s Action Plan For Healthy Eating And Active Living [Internet]. Available from: https://collections.ola.org/mon/14000/263356.pdf

ParticipACTION Report Card

The ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth (formerly the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card) is an assessment tool for child and youth physical activity in Canada. The current ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth was released on June 9, 2015. The ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth identifies families as critical influencers in children’s physical activity and healthy habits. Right now, families are physically closer than they have been for generations, as we collectively stay home to help contain the COVID-19 pandemic. Restricted access to playgrounds, physical school, childcare and playdates means the family’s impact has never been greater, but it’s also more challenging than ever to develop and maintain healthy habits at-home.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2005 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:ParticipACTION
Find out more:www.participaction.com
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Participaction.com. [cited 2020 Jul 22]. Available from: https://www.participaction.com/en-ca/resources/children-and-youth-report-card

Healthy U

Healthy U was developed as a public information and education campaign to support and encourage Albertans to lead healthier lifestyles by providing them with access to information on healthy eating and active living. Healthy U now has a mobile app and website.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2002 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government of Alberta
Find out more:www.healthyalberta.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Meal Planning and Weight Management – Healthy U [Internet]. Available from: https://healthyu.ca/nutrition-resources-meal-planning-and-weight-management/

Consumer Protection Act

Since 1978, Section 248 of Quebec’s Consumer Protection Act has banned any commercial advertising directed at children under the age of 13 on TV, radio, print, internet, mobile phones and signage as well as through the use of promotional items. The ban is applies to food and beverage marketing.

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):1978 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Quebec Government
Find out more:legisquebec.gouv.qc.ca
Linked document:Download linked document

24 hr movement guidelines

As young children grow and develop, they need to work towards high levels of physical activity, low levels of sedentary behaviour and sufficient sleep each day to be healthy — they need to Move, Sleep and Sit the right amounts. The new Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years (ages 0-4) show there is an important relationship between how much sleep, sedentary behaviour and physical activity children get in a 24-hour period.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology
Find out more:csepguidelines.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:CSEP | SCPE [Internet]. CSEP | SCPE. 2017a. Available from: https://csepguidelines.ca/

CHEO's Centre for Healthy Active Living

The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) Centre for Healthy Active Living works with children and their families with complex severe obesity using a coordinated and patient-specific plan of care which includes specialists such as a paediatric endocrinologist, general paediatrician, psychologists, case management nurse, registered dietician, exercise specialist, social worker and child and youth counsellor. The CHAL program is family based and designed to be short and intensive, lasting approximately 2 years. This will give families adequate time to work closely with the CHAL specialists, participate in our group programing, and learn tools and strategies to best manage their weight and health over the long-term. Following the 2 years, families will return to the care of their family physician who will have ongoing access to the CHAL team for consultation.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Evidence of Multidisciplinary Intervention
Categories (partial):Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Target age group:Children
Organisation:The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO)
Find out more:www.cheo.on.ca
References:Centre for Healthy Active Living [Internet]. www.cheo.on.ca. 2020a [cited 2020 Jul 21]. Available from: https://www.cheo.on.ca/en/clinics-services-programs/centre-for-healthy-active-living.aspx

EatRight Ontario; Unlock Food

EatRight Ontario provides advice on daily food choices to help the population of Ontario live well and stay healthy. This service provides easy-to-use nutrition information from Registered Dietitians to make healthier food choices.UnlockFood.ca (formerly EatRightOntario.ca)

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government of Ontario
Find out more:www.unlockfood.ca
Linked document:Download linked document
References:AboutUnlockFood - Unlock Food [Internet]. www.unlockfood.ca. Available from: https://www.unlockfood.ca/en/AboutUnlockFood.aspx

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