• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Health systems
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:59402
Area covered:National
References:FERREIRA, Arthur Pate de Souza; SZWARCWALD, Célia Landmann and DAMACENA, Giseli Nogueira. Prevalence of obesity and associated factors in the Brazilian population: a study of data from the 2013 National Health Survey. Rev. bras. epidemiol. [online]. 2019, vol.22 [cited 2019-05-16], e190024. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-790X2019000100420&lng=en&nrm=iso. Epub Apr 01, 2019. ISSN 1415-790X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-549720190024.
Notes:NB. Combined adult data estimated. These estimates were calculated by weighting male and female survey results. Weighting based on World Bank Population % total female 2019 (https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL.FE.ZS - accessed 30.09.20)'
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2008-2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:121081
Area covered:National
References:Ministério da Saúde. Pesquisa de Orcamentos Familiares 2008-9. Antrompoetria E Esado Nutricional de Crianças, Adolescentes E Adultos No Brasil. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografi a e Estatística (IBGE) 2010.
Notes:Please note self reported (estimated height & weight) survey data exists for 2015 from the Brazil National Health and Wellness Survey
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2002-2003

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:93329
Area covered:National
References:Monteiro CA, Conde WL and Popkin BA. (2007). Income-specific trends in obesity in Brazil: 1975 - 2003. American Journal of Public Health, 97 (10): 1808 - 1812.
Notes:Data from National Househood Budget Survey.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2001

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-64
Sample size:1252
References:Peixoto Mdo R, Benício MH, Jardim PC. The relationship between body mass index and lifestyle in a Brazilian adult population: a cross-sectional survey. Cad Saude Publica. 2007 Nov;23(11):2694-740
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1997

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:Not specified
References:Filozof C, Gonzales C, Sereday M, Mazza C, Braguinsky J. Obesity prevalence and trends in Latin American countries. Obesity Reviews, 2001;2:99-196
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1989

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-64
Sample size:Not specified
References:Barguinsky J. Obesity prevalence in Latin America. Anales Sis San Navarra 2002;25(Suppl 1):S109-115
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1975

Survey type:Measured
Age:20+
Sample size:78031
References:Monteiro CA, Conde WL, Popking BM. Is obesity replacing or adding to undernutrition? Evidence from different social classes in Brazil. 2002. Public Health Nutrition:51(1A), 105-112
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Age:12-17
Sample size:73399
Area covered:National
References:Bloch KV, Klein CH,Szklo M, Kuschnir MCC, Abreu GA, Barufaldi LA et al. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents. Rev Saude Publica. 2016;50(suppl 1):9s.
Notes:Z Score Cut Off (1 to <2) Overweight, >2 Obesity
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2009-2011

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-10
Sample size:1947
Area covered:National
References:Flores LS, Gaya AR, Petersen RD, Gaya AC. Trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Brazilian children and adolescents. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2013;89:456–61.
Notes:The subject was classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese, according to the categories proposed by Conde and Monteiro.
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2008-2009

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-9
Sample size:17491
Area covered:National
References:http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/condicaodevida/pof/2008_2009/POFpublicacao.pdf
Notes:WHO 2007 Cut off
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2002

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-10
Sample size:2936
Area covered:National
References:de Assis MAA, Rolland-Cachera MF, Grosseman S, de Vasconcelos FAG, Luna MEP, Calvo MCM, Barros MVG, Pires MMS and Bellisle F. 2005. Obesity, overweight and thiness in schoolchildren of the city of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59: 1015 - 1021.
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1997

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:4875
References:Wang Y, Monteiro C, Popkin BM. Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China and Russia. AM J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:971-7
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1989

Survey type:Measured
Age:10
Sample size:783
References:Bellizzi MC, Horgan GW, Guillaume M, Dietz WH. Prevalence of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity in Asian and European countries. In: Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence. Editors: Chunming Chen, William H. Dietz. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series Pediatric Program. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2002.
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1974

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:56295
References:Wang Y, Monteiro C, Popkin BM. Trends of obesity and underweight in older children and adolescents in the United States, Brazil, China and Russia. AM J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:971-7
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by education

Adults, 2011

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Sample size:Approx. 54,000
Area covered:National
References:MALTA, Deborah Carvalho et al. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012. Rev. bras. epidemiol. [online]. 2014, vol.17, suppl.1 [cited 2017-11-13], pp.267-276. Available from: <http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-790X2014000500267&lng=en&nrm=iso>. ISSN 1415-790X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1809-4503201400050021
Notes:Prevalence of overweight and obesity by educational level (years of study)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2008-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-59
Sample size:527
Area covered:Regional - N.Eastern Brazil
References:Lima R P A, Pereira D C, Luna R C P, et al. BMI, Overweight Status and Obesity Adjusted by Various Factors in All Age Groups in the Population of a City in Northeastern Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 4422-4438; doi:10.3390/ijerph120404422
Notes:< elementary school, corresponding to 9 years or less of schooling, and ≥incomplete high school, corresponding to more than 9 years of education.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Boys, 2007

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-14
Sample size:2826
Area covered:Subnational - Municipality of Florianópolis
References:Bernardo, Carla de Oliveira, & Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de. (2012). Association of parents' nutritional status, and sociodemographic and dietary factors with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren 7 to 14 years old. Cadernos de Saúde Pública,28(2), 291-304. Retrieved April 04, 2016, from http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-311X2012000200008&lng=en&tlng=en.
Notes:Prevalence of obesity based on Father's schooling years. For the analyses, the schoolchildren were classified into two groups: not overweight or obese (values equivalent to BMI < 25kg/m2 in adults) and overweight or obese (values equivalent to BMI ≥ 25kg/m2 in adults)
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2007

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-14
Sample size:2826
Area covered:Subnational - Municipality of Florianópolis
References:Bernardo, Carla de Oliveira, & Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de. (2012). Association of parents' nutritional status, and sociodemographic and dietary factors with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren 7 to 14 years old. Cadernos de Saúde Pública,28(2), 291-304. Retrieved April 04, 2016, from http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-311X2012000200008&lng=en&tlng=en.
Notes:Prevalence of obesity based on Father's schooling years. For the analyses, the schoolchildren were classified into two groups: not overweight or obese (values equivalent to BMI < 25kg/m2 in adults) and overweight or obese (values equivalent to BMI ≥ 25kg/m2 in adults)
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by age

Adults, 2013

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:59402
References:FERREIRA, Arthur Pate de Souza; SZWARCWALD, Célia Landmann  and  DAMACENA, Giseli Nogueira. Prevalence of obesity and associated factors in the Brazilian population: a study of data from the 2013 National Health Survey. Rev. bras. epidemiol. [online]. 2019, vol.22 [cited  2020-06-11], e190024. Available from: <http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-790X2019000100420&lng=en&nrm=iso>.  Epub Apr 01, 2019. ISSN 1980-5497.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1980-549720190024.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2008-2009

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:121081
Area covered:National
References:Ministério da Saúde. Pesquisa de Orcamentos Familiares 2008-9. Antrompoetria E Esado Nutricional de Crianças, Adolescentes E Adultos No Brasil. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografi a e Estatística (IBGE) 2010.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2013-2014

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:73399
Area covered:National
References:Bloch KV, Klein CH,Szklo M, Kuschnir MCC, Abreu GA, Barufaldi LA et al. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents. Rev Saude Publica. 2016;50(suppl 1):9s.
Definitions:WHO
Cutoffs:WHO

Children, 2009-2011

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:4140
Area covered:National
References:Flores LS, Gaya AR, Petersen RD, Gaya AC. Trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity in Brazilian children and adolescents. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2013;89:456–61.
Notes:The subject was classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese, according to the categories proposed by Conde and Monteiro.
Cutoffs:Other

Overweight/obesity by region

Adults, 2012

Survey type:Self-reported
Age:18+
Sample size:Approx 54000
Area covered:National
References:MALTA, Deborah Carvalho et al. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012. Rev. bras. epidemiol. [online]. 2014, vol.17, suppl.1 [cited 2016-04-20], pp.267-276.
Notes:Prevalence of Obesity by Cities in each Region. The VIGITEL data analyzed in this study include weight and height reported by the respondents as well as their age, gender and level of schooling/education. In 2012, the VIGITEL performed the imputation of the missing data on weight and height.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Boys, 2004-2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:10-15
Sample size:36976
Area covered:National
References:Pelegrini, Andreia, Luiz Petroski, Edio, da Silva Coqueiro, Raildo, & Araujo Gaya, Adroaldo César. (2008). Overweight and obesity in brazilian schoolchildren aged 10 to 15 years: data from a Brazilian sports project. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición, 58(4), 343-349. Recuperado en 04 de abril de 2016, de http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-06222008000400004&lng=es&tlng=en.
Notes:International cut-off BMI values were used for the evaluation of nutritional status (Cole et al)
Cutoffs:IOTF

Girls, 2004-2005

Survey type:Measured
Age:10-15
Sample size:36976
Area covered:National
References:Pelegrini, Andreia, Luiz Petroski, Edio, da Silva Coqueiro, Raildo, & Araujo Gaya, Adroaldo César. (2008). Overweight and obesity in brazilian schoolchildren aged 10 to 15 years: data from a Brazilian sports project. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición, 58(4), 343-349. Recuperado en 04 de abril de 2016, de http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0004-06222008000400004&lng=es&tlng=en.
Notes:International cut-off BMI values were used for the evaluation of nutritional status (Cole et al)
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Adults, 2008-2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:20-59
Sample size:527
Area covered:Regional - N. Eastern Brazil
References:Lima R P A, Pereira D C, Luna R C P, et al. BMI, Overweight Status and Obesity Adjusted by Various Factors in All Age Groups in the Population of a City in Northeastern Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 4422-4438; doi:10.3390/ijerph120404422
Notes:WHO BMI classification of 1995 used for Adults. Median family income, R$1000.00, or $492.02.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2010

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-10
Sample size:939
Area covered:Municipality of Cruzeiro do Oeste, Southern Brazil.
References:Azambuja, Ana Paula de O., Netto-Oliveira, Edna Regina, Oliveira, Amauri Aparecido B. de, Azambuja, Maximiliano dos Anjos, & Rinaldi, Wilson. (2013). Prevalence of overweight/obesity and economical status of schoolchildren. Revista Paulista de Pediatria, 31(2), 166-171. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-05822013000200006
Notes:The socioeconomic status was defined through a questionnaire of economic classification by the Brazilian Association of Research Companies РAssociação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa, ABEP. This classification is based on items such as ownership of goods (television, radio, car, vacuum cleaner, VCR and/or DVD player, fridge, freezer and washing machine), services (housemaid), household characteristics (number of bathrooms) and educational level of the head of the household. The total score for each item results in the classification of respondents into seven strata identified as "social classes" A1, A2, B1, B2, C, D, and E(17). For analysis purposes, the eight economic levels, proposed by ABEP, were regrouped and named as follows: A1, A2, and B1 in High Economic Level (H); B2, C1 and C2 in Medium Economic Level (M) and, D and E in Low Economic Level (L).
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2008-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-17
Sample size:5962
Area covered:11 towns around the Itaipu Lake, Western Paraná
References:Hobold, E., & Arruda, M. (2015). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren: relationship with socioeconomic status, gender and age. Brazilian Journal of Kinanthropometry and Human Performance, 17(2), 156-164. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n2p156
Notes:IOTF Cut-offs used Socioeconomic status (SES) was defined as A (highest), B, C, and D (lowest)
Cutoffs:IOTF

Boys, 2007

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-14
Sample size:2826
Area covered:Municipality of Florianópolis
References:Bernardo, Carla de Oliveira, & Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de. (2012). Association of parents' nutritional status, and sociodemographic and dietary factors with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren 7 to 14 years old. Cadernos de Saúde Pública,28(2), 291-304. Retrieved April 04, 2016, from http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-311X2012000200008&lng=en&tlng=en.
Notes:Prevalence of obesity based on income (per capita monthly income R$). 1st tercile: < R$240.00, 2nd tercile: > R$240.00 and < R$500.00, and 3rd tercile: > R$500.00 For the analyses, the schoolchildren were classified into two groups: not overweight or obese (values equivalent to BMI < 25kg/m2 in adults) and overweight or obese (values equivalent to BMI > 25kg/m2 in adults)
Cutoffs:Other

Girls, 2007

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-14
Sample size:2826
Area covered:Municipality of Florianópolis
References:Bernardo, Carla de Oliveira, & Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de. (2012). Association of parents' nutritional status, and sociodemographic and dietary factors with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren 7 to 14 years old. Cadernos de Saúde Pública,28(2), 291-304. Retrieved April 04, 2016, from http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-311X2012000200008&lng=en&tlng=en.
Notes:Prevalence of obesity based on income (per capita monthly income R$). 1st tercile: < R$240.00, 2nd tercile: > R$240.00 and < R$500.00, and 3rd tercile: > R$500.00 For the analyses, the schoolchildren were classified into two groups: not overweight or obese (values equivalent to BMI < 25kg/m2 in adults) and overweight or obese (values equivalent to BMI > 25kg/m2 in adults)
Cutoffs:Other

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Estimated per-capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per-capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Breast cancer

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, breast, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, cervix uteri, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014-2019

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014-2019

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Health systems

Economic classification: Upper Middle Income

Health systems summary

Brazil has a universal, publicly funded healthcare system that is known as the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). SUS is funded by taxes and contributions from government (at a federal, state and municipal level). The private sector, however, currently serves approximately 25% of the population, as many individuals have the option to purchase insurance plans via their employer or choose to purchase individually (with many receiving tax relief on these payments).

It is widely reported that there is great disparity in treatment availability and quality between public and private healthcare, and so it seems that those that can afford private healthcare purchase it. As a result, out of pocket expenditure in Brazil is relatively high.

Indicators

Where is the country’s government in the journey towards defining ‘Obesity as a disease’?Some progress
Where is the country’s healthcare provider in the journey towards defining ‘Obesity as a disease’?Some progress
Is there specialist training available dedicated to the training of health professionals to prevent, diagnose, treat and manage obesity?No
Have any taxes or subsidies been put in place to protect/assist/inform the population around obesity?No
Are there adequate numbers of trained health professionals in specialties relevant to obesity in urban areas?Some progress
Are there adequate numbers of trained health professionals in specialties relevant to obesity in rural areas?No
Are there any obesity-specific recommendations or guidelines published for adults?Yes
Are there any obesity-specific recommendations or guidelines published for children?Yes
In practice, how is obesity treatment largely funded?Insurance

Perceived barriers to treatment

  • Lack of political will, interest and action
  • Influence of food industry
  • Lack of training for HCPs and and lack of trained HCPs
  • Poor health literacy and behaviour
  • Poor availability of pharmaceutical treatments
  • Obesity not recognised as a disease

Summary of stakeholder feedback

It appears that although obesity is considered a public health priority in Brazil, there is little government action. Obesity is commonly seen as a lifestyle issue and treatment options are limited.

In the public system it appears that only bariatric surgery is covered, meaning that comprehensive treatment and management is only available in the private sector. Private care, however, is unaffordable for most of the Brazilian population, so only the wealthiest can afford obesity-related treatments. Associação Brasileira para o Estudo da Obesidade are currently working towards the approval of obesity medications through the SUS healthcare scheme, which will hopefully make them more affordable. One stakeholder reported that obesity medication is difficult to get privately too, with private insurers rarely funding it.

While a national strategy on NCDs exists, stakeholders were unclear whether there is an accompanying implementation guide. There are also clinical guidelines for obesity treatment, but rate of uptake is reportedly low. In the public system is appears that patients need to have a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m² with comorbidities (or ≥ 40 kg/m² without) to qualify for bariatric treatment but even then, there is a long waiting list. Treatment is said to be particularly difficult to access in the rural areas.

Overall, there are inadequate numbers of trained health professionals in specialties relevant to obesity, with there being little to no specialist training available. It was noted that although there are increasing numbers of physicians, they do not have specific obesity training and so qualify ill-equipped to treat and manage obesity.

Based on interviews/survey returns from 5 stakeholders

Last updated: June 2020

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How is physical activity during the coronavirus pandemic

A roadmap on how to include movements in your routine in Covid-19 times

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2020 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:ministry of health
Find out more:saudebrasil.saude.gov.br
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Admin, S.B. (n.d.) Como fica a prática de atividade física durante a pandemia de Coronavírus? [Online]. saudebrasil.saude.gov.br. Available from: https://saudebrasil.saude.gov.br/eu-quero-me-exercitar-mais/como-fica-a-pratica-de-atividade-fisica-durante-a-pandemia-de-coronavirus [Accessed: 14 July 2020]. ‌

Learning from Brazil’s Food and Nutrition Security Policies

This paper has been compiled by an inter-disciplinary team based in the UK and Brazil, coordinated by the Institute of Development Studies and funded by the Food Foundation, an independent think-tank which develops evidence-based policy solutions to address the challenges of the UK food system, putting low-income consumers first.

Categories:Health Effectiveness Reviews (obesity related)
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Institute of Development Studies
Find out more:foodfoundation.org.uk
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Santarelli, M., Vieira, L. & Constantine (2018) Learning from Brazil’s Food and Nutrition Security Policies. [Online]. Available from: https://foodfoundation.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Learning-from-Brazilian-Food-and-Nutrition-Security-Policies_final_clean_rev_FF.pdf [Accessed: 14 July 2020]. ‌

BRAZIL’S FOOD AND NUTRITIONAL GOVERNANCE PLAN

This briefing pack provides a snapshot of Brazil’s national framework for food and nutritional security policy, and showcases a number of specific programmes aimed at improving nutritional outcomes, including school meals, breastfeeding, community restaurants and nutritional surveillance systems. These documents are available online from the Food Foundation and Institute of Development Studies.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of NCD strategy
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Food foundation
Find out more:foodfoundation.org.uk
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Brazil (2017) INTERNATIONAL LEARNING SERIES 4 / BRAZIL’S FOOD AND NUTRITIONAL GOVERNANCE PLAN INTERNATIONAL LEARNING SERIES / 4 PUBLISHED. [Online]. Available from: https://foodfoundation.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/4-Briefing-Brazil_vF.pdf [Accessed: 14 July 2020]. ‌

Brazilian Obesity Guidelines - 2016

Brazilian Obesity Guidelines - 2016

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2016 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Associação Brasileira para o Estudo da Obesidade e Síndrome Metabólica
Find out more:abeso.org.br
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Associação Brasileira para o Estudo da Obesidade e da Síndrome Metabólica Diretrizes brasileiras de obesidade 2016 / ABESO - Associação Brasileira para o Estudo da Obesidade e da Síndrome Metabólica. – 4.ed. - São Paulo, SP

National plan for food and nutritional security

Document outlining the plan to implement access to healthier food throughout the nation.

Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2016-2019
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:INTERMINISTERIAL CHAMBER OF FOOD AND NUTRITIONAL SECURITY - CAISAN
Find out more:extranet.who.int
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (n.d.) Policy - Plano Nacional de Segurança Alimentar E Nutricional (PLANSAN 2016-2019) | Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA). [Online]. extranet.who.int. Available from: https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/24695.

Smart commitments: United Nations (UN) Decade of Action on Nutrition 2016–2025

Stop the growth in the adult obesity rate (which currently stands at 20.8%) Reduce by at least 30% consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among adults Increase by at least 17.8% the proportion of adults who regularly eat fruit and vegetables

Categories (partial):Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action
Year(s):2016-2025
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health
Find out more:www.who.int
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (n.d.) WHO | Brazil first country to make specific commitments in UN Decade of Action on Nutrition. [Online]. WHO. Available from: https://www.who.int/nutrition/decade-of-action/brazil-commitment-22may2017/en/ [Accessed: 14 July 2020ci]. ‌

Ultra-processed food and drink products in Latin America: Trends, impact on obesity, policy implications

A report on the sales of ultra-processed food and drink products and the connection between the surge in market share and the epidemic of obesity in Latin America.

Categories:Health Effectiveness Reviews (obesity related)
Year(s):2015 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
Find out more:www.paho.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Ultra-processed food and drink products in Latin America: Trends, impact on obesity, policy implications. Washington, D.C: PAHO, 2015.

Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population

These Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population are designed to support and encourage healthy eating practices personally and collectively and also to support policies, programmes, and actions_x000D__x000D_ whose purpose is to encourage, protect, and promote the good health and the food and nutrition security of the whole Brazilian population.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2014 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health for Brazil: Secretariat of Health Care, Primary Health Care Department
Find out more:www.paho.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Cayon, A. & https://www.facebook.com/pahowho (2016) PAHO/WHO | Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian population. [Online]. 14 January 2016. Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization. Available from: https://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11564:dietary-guidelines-brazilian-population&Itemid=4256&lang=en.

Intersectoral Strategy for Prevention and Control of Obesity: “guiding on ways of life and adequate and healthy food for the Brazilian population

To guide and encourage, through intersectoral strategies, actions for the prevention and control of obesity in the Brazilian population, promoting adequate and healthy food and the usual practice of physical activity.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2014 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Health ministry
Find out more:extranet.who.int
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (n.d.) Policy - Estratégia Intersetorial de Prevenção e Controle da Obesidade: “orientando sobre modos de vida e alimentação adequada e saudável para a população brasileira | Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA). [Online]. extranet.who.int. Available from: https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/39352 [Accessed: 15 July 2020az]. ‌

National Food and Nutrition Policy

This policy is an updated edition of the National Food and Nutrition Policy (PNAN) to improve food, nutrition and health conditions and to guarantee food and nutritional safety for the Brazilian population. On 25 August 2010, Brazil adopted a Policy on Food Security and Nutrition of Brazil (Decree 7.272) that firmly establishes the right to food in Brazil's food and nutrition efforts. The Policy is part of the efforts undertaken in view of the implementation of the Food and Nutrition Security Law (LOSAN) of 2006. It establishes the framework and principles for the development of a National Food and Nutrition Security Plan. The right to food is firmly anchored in the Policy. The National Food and Nutrition Policy (PNAN) aims to improve the conditions of food, nutrition and health of the Brazilian population, by promoting adequate and healthy eating practices, food and nutritional surveillance, prevention and comprehensive care of diseases related to food and nutrition.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health of Brazil
Find out more:extranet.who.int
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (n.d.) Policy - Política Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição 2012 | Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA). [Online]. extranet.who.int. Available from: https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/23237.

Regulations of Food labelling

Guidelines outlining how food labelling should be conducted.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2012 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:National Health Surveillance Agency
Find out more:portal.anvisa.gov.br
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (n.d.) Policy - Regularização de produtos - Alimentos (Rotulagem de alimentos) | Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA). [Online]. extranet.who.int. Available from: https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/25365 [Accessed: 15 July 2020bp]. ‌

National Non-communicable disease strategy

National Non-communicable disease strategy 2011-2022

Categories:Evidence of NCD strategy
Year(s):2011-2022
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health
Linked document:Download linked document

Step by Step: health programme

Health and education policies aimed at children, adolescents, youth and adults in Brazilian public education are coming together to promote the full development of this audience.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Ministry of Health
Find out more:extranet.who.int
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (n.d.) Policy - Passo a passo - Programa Saúde na Escola | Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA). [Online]. extranet.who.int. Available from: https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/en/node/39351 [Accessed: 15 July 2020]. ‌

Brazil Public Commitment on Food and Beverage Advertising to Children (Brazil Pledge)

In August 2009, the Food and Drink Association of Brazil (ABIA) and the Association of Brazilian Advertisers (ABA) published a "public commitment on food and beverage advertising to children." The basic principles of the pledge follow those of the EU Pledge. (Rudd Centre)

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2009 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Food and Drink Association of Brazil (ABIA) and the Association of Brazilian Advertisers (ABA)
Find out more:pledges.uconnruddcenter.org
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (n.d.) Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity — Marketing Pledges - Pledge Detail. [Online]. pledges.uconnruddcenter.org. Available from: http://pledges.uconnruddcenter.org/pledge.aspx?id=5 [Accessed: 14 July 2020cb]. ‌

National School Meal Programme

This Law, consisting of 35 articles, establishes the School Feeding Programme in primary schools of Brazil Art. 2 of this Law establishes that school food guidelines.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2009 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Brazilian Government
Find out more:www.ecolex.org

Health at School Programme

The Health at School Program (PSE) aims at the permanent integration and articulation of education and health, providing improving the quality of life of the Brazilian population.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2007 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Presidencia da República
Find out more:extranet.who.int
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (n.d.) Programa Saúde nas Escolas. [Online]. Available from: https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/sites/default/files/BRA%202007%20_ProgramaSaudeEscolas.pdf [Accessed: 15 July 2020cf]. ‌

Nutrition education in public elementary schools of São Paulo, Brazil: the Reducing Risks of Illness and Death in Adulthood project

CONCLUSION: Even with a positive attitude regarding the development of this proposal, there was a lack of support from the studied schools. Future studies and a greater involvement by the Health and Education sectors could overcome such barriers, improving the results of school-based programs to prevent obesity.

Categories:Health Effectiveness Reviews (obesity related)
Year(s):2005 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Nutrition Department, University of Sao Paulo
Find out more:www.scielo.br
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Gaglianone, C.P., Taddei, J.A. de A.C., Colugnati, F.A.B., Magalhães, C.G., et al. (2006) Nutrition education in public elementary schools of São Paulo, Brazil: the Reducing Risks of Illness and Death in Adulthood project. Revista de Nutrição. [Online] 19 (3), 309–320. Available from: doi:10.1590/S1415-52732006000300002. ‌

No actions could be found for the above criteria.

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