• Overview
  • Obesity prevalence
  • Trends over time
  • Population breakdowns
  • Drivers
  • Comorbidities
  • Health systems
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Obesity prevalence

Adults, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:21000
Area covered:National
References:Australian National Health Survey 2017-18 (provisional results). http://abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/4364.0.55.001~2017-18~Main%20Features~About%20the%20National%20Health%20Survey~5 (accessed 12.12.18)
Notes:Around 32% of those measured in 2017 did not have height & weight measured, they used self report
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2014-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:14561
Area covered:National
References:Australian National Health Survey, 2014-15 First Results. Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4364.0.55.001Appendix22014-15?opendocument&tabname=Notes&prodno=4364.0.55.001&issue=2014-15&num=&view= (last accessed 27th September 2017)
Notes:Body Mass Index is derived from measured height and weight. In 2014-15, 26.8% of respondents aged 18 years and over did not have their height, weight or both measured. For these respondents, imputation was used to obtain height, weight and BMI scores. For more information see Appendix 2: Physical measurements in the National Health Survey, see link in referencde
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:9019
Area covered:National
References:Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2015. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease—Australian facts: Risk factors. Cardiovascular, diabetes and chronic kidney disease series no. 4. Cat. no. CDK 4. Canberra: AIHW. ABS 2013a. Australian Health Survey: biomedical results for chronic diseases, 2011–12. ABS. cat. no. 4364.0.55.005. Canberra: ABS. Australian Health Survey 2011-12. http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=60129550538
Notes:Check original to confirm sample size, 9019 is understood to be the sample size More recent data for combined Overweight & Obesity available at Australian Health Survey First Results 2014-15 (http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/CDA852A349B4CEE6CA257F150009FC53/$File/national%20health%20survey%20first%20results,%202014-15.pdf last accessed 4th January 2017)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2007-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:15+
Sample size:11247
Area covered:National
References:National Health Survey: Summary of Results 2009 (4364). Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2007-2008

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:16601
Area covered:National
References:Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). National Health Survey: Summary of results. Canberra, Australia, ABS, 2009. WHO Global InfoBase reference:102910
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1999-2000

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-84
Sample size:11247
Area covered:National
References:Cameron, A.J., Welborn, A.T., Zimmet, P.Z., Dunstan, D.W., Owen, N., Salmon, J., Dalton, M., Jolley, D. and Shaw, J.E. Overweight and obesity in Australia:the 1999 - 2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Med J Aust 2003 5;178 (9), 427 - 432. PubMed ID: 12720507
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 1980

Survey type:Measured
Age:25-64
References:Bennett SA, Magnus P (on behalf of the Risk Factor Prevalence Study Management Committee of the National Heart Foundation of Australia). Trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Australia. Results from the National heart Foundation’s Risk Factor Prevalence Study, 1980-1989, the Medical Journal of Australia 1994;161:519-527
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2017-2018

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:3769
Area covered:National
References:Australian National Health Survey 2017-18 https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/health/health-conditions-and-risks/national-health-survey-first-results/latest-release#chronic-conditions (accessed 02.10.2020)
Notes:Approximately 43% of those measured in 2017 did not have height & weight measured, self-report was used instead
Definitions:Cut off: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM and Dietz WH, Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey, BMJ 2000; 320.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2014-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:5-17
Sample size:4033
Area covered:National
References:Australian Health Survey First Results 2014-15 (http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/CDA852A349B4CEE6CA257F150009FC53/$File/national%20health%20survey%20first%20results,%202014-15.pdf last accessed 4th January 2017)
Cutoffs:Other

Children, 2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-17
Sample size:12869
Area covered:National
References:O'Dea JA, Dibley MJ. Prevalence of obesity, overweight and thinness in Australian children and adolescents by socioeconomic status and ethnic/cultural group in 2006 and 2012. International Journal of Public Health October 2014, Volume 59, Issue 5, pp 819-828
Notes:IOTF Cut off point Age range approximate uses children from School Year 3-10
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2007

Survey type:Measured
Age:2-16
Sample size:4487
Area covered:National
References:Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2007 - Main Findings. Australian Government, Australian Food and Grocery Council, Australian Government Dept of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2003-2004

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-11
Sample size:2184
Area covered:Regional
References:Sanigorski AM, Bell AC, Kremer PJ, Swinburn BA. High Childhood Obesity in an Australian Population. Obesity 2007;15:1908-1912
Notes:IOTF International Cut off points applied.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1997

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-15
Sample size:5518
Area covered:National
References:Booth ML, Dobbins T, Okely D, Denney-Wilson E and Hardy LL. 2007. Trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among young Australians, 1985, 1997 and 2004. Obesity, 15 (5): 1089 - 1095.
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3. Sample size includes children aged 13-15yrs
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1997

Survey type:Measured
Age:10+
Sample size:452
References:Bellizzi MC, Horgan GW, Guillaume M, Dietz WH. Prevalence of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity in Asian and European countries. In: Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence. Editors: Chunming Chen, William H. Dietz. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series Pediatric Program. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2002.
Notes:IOTF International Cut off points applied
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1995

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-11
Sample size:2962
References:Magarey AM, Daniels LA, Boulton TJC. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australian children and adolescents: reassesment of 1985 and 1995 data against new standard international definitions. MJA 2001;174:561-564
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 1985

Survey type:Measured
Age:7-11
Sample size:8492
References:Magarey AM, Daniels LA, Boulton TJC. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Australian children and adolescents: reassesment of 1985 and 1995 data against new standard international definitions. MJA 2001;174:561-564
Notes:IOTF Cut off. Reference: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ. 2000 May 6;320(7244):1240-3.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by age

Adults, 2014-2015

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:14561
Area covered:National
References:Australian Health Survey First Results 2014-15 (http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/CDA852A349B4CEE6CA257F150009FC53/$File/national%20health%20survey%20first%20results,%202014-15.pdf last accessed 4th January 2017)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2014-2015

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:14561
Area covered:National
References:Australian National Health Survey, 2014-15 First Results. Australian Bureau of Statistics. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4364.0.55.001Appendix22014-15?opendocument&tabname=Notes&prodno=4364.0.55.001&issue=2014-15&num=&view= (last accessed 27th September 2017)
Notes:Body Mass Index is derived from measured height and weight. In 2014-15, 26.8% of respondents aged 18 years and over did not have their height, weight or both measured. For these respondents, imputation was used to obtain height, weight and BMI scores. For more information see Appendix 2: Physical measurements in the National Health Survey.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Adults, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Area covered:National
References:Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2015. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease—Australian facts: Risk factors. Cardiovascular, diabetes and chronic kidney disease series no. 4. Cat. no. CDK 4. Canberra: AIHW. ABS 2013a. Australian Health Survey: biomedical results for chronic diseases, 2011–12. ABS. cat. no. 4364.0.55.005. Canberra: ABS.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2012

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:12869
Area covered:National
References:O'Dea JA, Dibley MJ. Prevalence of obesity, overweight and thinness in Australian children and adolescents by socioeconomic status and ethnic/cultural group in 2006 and 2012. Int J Public Health. 2014 Oct;59(5):819-28. doi: 10.1007/s00038-014-0605-3. Epub 2014 Sep 5.
Notes:International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) 0.5 year body mass index (BMI) cutoffs used.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Children, 2007

Survey type:Measured
Sample size:4487
References:Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey - Main Findings. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia
Notes:IOTF International Cut off points applied. Regional Data
Cutoffs:IOTF

Overweight/obesity by region

Men, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2015. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease— Australian facts: Risk factors. Cardiovascular, diabetes and chronic kidney disease series no. 4. Cat. no. CDK 4. Canberra: AIHW.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:Large National Survey
Area covered:National
References:Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2015. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease— Australian facts: Risk factors. Cardiovascular, diabetes and chronic kidney disease series no. 4. Cat. no. CDK 4. Canberra: AIHW.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Overweight/obesity by socio-economic group

Men, 2014-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:14561
Area covered:National
References:Australian Health Survey First Results 2014-15 (http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/CDA852A349B4CEE6CA257F150009FC53/$File/national%20health%20survey%20first%20results,%202014-15.pdf last accessed 4th January 2017)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2014-2015

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Sample size:14561
Area covered:National
References:Australian Health Survey First Results 2014-15 (http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/CDA852A349B4CEE6CA257F150009FC53/$File/national%20health%20survey%20first%20results,%202014-15.pdf last accessed 4th January 2017)
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Men, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2015. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease—Australian facts: Risk factors. Cardiovascular, diabetes and chronic kidney disease series no. 4. Cat. no. CDK 4. Canberra: AIHW. ABS 2013a. Australian Health Survey: biomedical results for chronic diseases, 2011–12. ABS. cat. no. 4364.0.55.005. Canberra: ABS.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Women, 2011-2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:18+
Area covered:National
References:Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2015. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease—Australian facts: Risk factors. Cardiovascular, diabetes and chronic kidney disease series no. 4. Cat. no. CDK 4. Canberra: AIHW. ABS 2013a. Australian Health Survey: biomedical results for chronic diseases, 2011–12. ABS. cat. no. 4364.0.55.005. Canberra: ABS.
Unless otherwise noted, overweight refers to a BMI between 25kg and 29.9kg/m², obesity refers to a BMI greater than 30kg/m².

Children, 2012

Survey type:Measured
Age:6-18
Sample size:12869
Area covered:National
References:O'Dea JA, Dibley MJ. Prevalence of obesity, overweight and thinness in Australian children and adolescents by socioeconomic status and ethnic/cultural group in 2006 and 2012. Int J Public Health. 2014 Oct;59(5):819-28. doi: 10.1007/s00038-014-0605-3. Epub 2014 Sep 5.
Notes:International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) 0.5 year body mass index (BMI) cutoffs used.
Cutoffs:IOTF

Insufficient physical activity

Adults, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Men, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Women, 2016

References:Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1.9 million participants. Lancet 2018 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30357-7

Children, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Boys, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Girls, 2010

Age:11-17
References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A893?lang=en
Notes:% of school going adolescents not meeting WHO recommendations on Physical Activity for Health, i.e. doing less than 60 minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity daily.
Definitions:% Adolescents insufficiently active (age standardised estimate)

Estimated per-capita fruit intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita fruit intake (g/day)

Estimated per-capita processed meat intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita processed meat intake (g per day)

Estimated per-capita whole grains intake

Adults, 2017

Survey type:Measured
Age:25+
References:Global Burden of Disease, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation http://ghdx.healthdata.org/
Definitions:Estimated per-capita whole grains intake (g/day)

Mental health - depression disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with depression disorders

Mental health - anxiety disorders

Adults, 2015

References:Prevalence data from Global Burden of Disease study 2015 (http://ghdx.healthdata.org) published in: Depression and Other Common Mental Disorders: Global Health Estimates. Geneva:World Health Organization; 2017. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Definitions:% of population with anxiety disorders

Oesophageal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, oesophagus, adults ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Breast cancer

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, breast, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Colorectal cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, colorectum, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Pancreatic cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, pancreas, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Gallbladder cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, gallbladder, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Kidney cancer

Men, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, kidney, adults, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Cancer of the uterus

Women, 2018

Age:20+
References:Global Cancer Observatory, Cancer incidence rates http://gco.iarc.fr/ (last accessed 30th June 2020)
Definitions:Estimated age-standardized incidence rates (World) in 2018, cervix uteri, females, ages 20+. ASR (World) per 100,000

Raised blood pressure

Adults, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Men, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Women, 2015

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A875?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised estimated % Raised blood pressure 2015 (SBP>=140 OR DBP>=90).

Raised cholesterol

Adults, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Men, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Women, 2008

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A885
Definitions:% Raised total cholesterol (>= 5.0 mmol/L) (age-standardized estimate).

Raised fasting blood glucose

Men, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Women, 2014

References:Global Health Observatory data repository, World Health Organisation, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.A869?lang=en
Definitions:Age Standardised % raised fasting blood glucose (>= 7.0 mmol/L or on medication).

Diabetes prevalence

Adults, 2017

References:Reproduced with kind permission of IDF, International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th edition. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation, 2017. http://www.diabetesatlas.org
Definitions:Diabetes age-adjusted comparative prevalence (%).

Health systems

Economic classification: High Income

Health systems summary

The Australian healthcare system is jointly run by all levels of government – federal, state, territory, and local. The primary insurance scheme, Medicare, is a single-payer, federal government-administered scheme that covers all Australian and New Zealand citizens and permanent Australian residents. Medicare covers the cost of all public hospital services, and some or all of the costs of other health services and is supplemented by an additional subsidy scheme, the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, that reduces the cost of pharmaceutical prescriptions. Many Australians have private health insurance to enable access to private hospitals and/or to cover the costs of “ancillary” treatment not covered by the public system.

Indicators

Where is the country’s government in the journey towards defining ‘Obesity as a disease’?No
Where is the country’s healthcare provider in the journey towards defining ‘Obesity as a disease’?Some progress
Is there specialist training available dedicated to the training of health professionals to prevent, diagnose, treat and manage obesity?No
Have any taxes or subsidies been put in place to protect/assist/inform the population around obesity?No
Are there adequate numbers of trained health professionals in specialties relevant to obesity in urban areas?No
Are there adequate numbers of trained health professionals in specialties relevant to obesity in rural areas?No
Are there any obesity-specific recommendations or guidelines published for adults?Yes
Are there any obesity-specific recommendations or guidelines published for children?Yes
In practice, how is obesity treatment largely funded?Out of pocket

Perceived barriers to treatment

  • Stigma
  • Lack of financial investment and funding for coverage
  • Lack of training
  • Lack of political will, interest and action
  • Influence of food industry
  • Lack of treatment facilities

Summary of stakeholder feedback

There appears to be much resistance to the classification of obesity as a disease by the Australian government. Obesity is considered to be the individual’s responsibility and so resources are mostly dedicated to public health messaging. There is, however, continued refusal by the government to implement any fiscal measures to prevent obesity.

Financial resources for treatment, on the other hand, are generally poor and variable across the country. With the exception of some states investing in childhood obesity and some bariatric facilities in public hospitals, the poor financial investment into the management and treatment of obesity in the public system means that many seek care privately when they can. As a result, most stakeholders felt that the Australian health system was not working for those living with obesity as most incur high out of pocket payments for treatment.

Individuals living with obesity tend to enter the health system via their general practitioner or public hospital clinic. To receive care in the public system, individuals must meet strict criteria and even then, are subject to long waiting lists. Accessibility and availability of treatment is said to vary by state, and training for obesity specialists is limited. Pharmacotherapy and bariatric options are particularly limited, and this is only exacerbated in rural or remote areas.

Based on interviews/survey returns from 7 stakeholders

Last updated: June 2020

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Actions

State public Health plan 2019-2024

Vision is for a South Australia where communities are friendly, safe and sustainable with well designed places which support physical, mental health and wellbeing. This includes being able to walk or cycle to local services and easily access public transport to larger centres, make nutritious food choices and enjoy being active in parks and other recreational facilities. The vision also sees South Australia's rich diversity celebrated, community activities accessible to everyone and residents participating and having a say in community life. Vision provides opportunity for everyone to work together at a local and state level to improve health and well being in south australia.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2019-2024
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government of South Australia.
Find out more:www.sahealth.sa.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Government of South Australia. State public Health plan 2019-2024. Available from: https://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/d18380e5-6792-4cdd-a193-08d80fd47df4/FINAL+State+public+Health+Plan+2019-2024.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=ROOTWORKSPACE-d18380e5-6792-4cdd-a193-08d80fd47df4-mxUSYZt. [Accessed 13 February 2019].

National Obesity Summit

12 October 2018: Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Health Council (CHC) meeting, Ministers agreed that a National Obesity Strategy would be developed and that the first phase of the development process would include a Commonwealth funded National Obesity Summit. The National Obesity Summit was held in Canberra on 15 February 2019 and was attended by approximately 120 participants from government, academia/research, medical and public health organisations, the food industry and consumer groups. The National Obesity Summit was held in Canberra on 15 February 2019 and was attended by approximately 120 participants from government, academia/research, medical and public health organisations, the food industry and consumer groups.

Categories:Non-national obesity strategies
Categories (partial):Evidence of National Obesity Strategy/Policy or Action
Year(s):2018-2019
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Council of Australian Governments (COAG) Health Council (CHC) meeting
Find out more:www1.health.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (2019) Overweight and Obesity. [Online]. 2019. Health.gov.au. Available from: https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/Overweight-and-Obesity.

Secondary Years Kitchen Garden Project

The project will develop the first curriculum-integrated kitchen garden program model for Australian secondary schools. The programme will result in a kitchen garden programme model that secondary schools can integrate within their curriculum ultimately aiming to improve well-being, health, education and community integration. Students will gain experience in growing, preparing, harvesting and cooking seasonal food.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2018 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:The Kitchen Garden Foundation (Narre Warren South P-12 College, Numurkah Secondary College and Western Heights College are the first to collaborate with the foundation)
Find out more:www.kitchengardenfoundation.org.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Kitchen Garden Foundation. Secondary years project welcomes first three pilot schools. [Available from: https://www.kitchengardenfoundation.org.au/content/secondary-years-project-welcomes-first-three-pilot-schools]. Last Accessed 23rd January 2019.

Health and wellbeing strategic framework 2017-2026

National strategy with a prevention focused pathway aiming to improve the health of all living in Queensland. The focus is on modifiable behaviours including unhealthy diet and sedentary behaviours.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Evidence of NCD strategy
Year(s):2017-2026
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Queensland Health
Find out more:www.health.qld.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Queensland Health. Health and wellbeing strategic framework 2017-2026. Available from: https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0036/651798/health-wellbeing-strategic-framework.pdf [Accessed 15 August 2019].

Obesity epidemic in Australia

A report outlining the recommendations of the Select Committee into the Obesity Epidemic

Categories:Health Effectiveness Reviews (obesity related)
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Commonwealth of Australia
Find out more:www.health.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Select Committee into the Obesity Epidemic in Australia

Tipping the scales: Australian obesity prevention consensus

Over the past two years the Obesity Policy Coalition and The Global Obesity Centre, Deakin University, have convened an expert advisory group of public health professionals representing a range of organisations. Through this process we have developed the agreed key components of a national obesity prevention strategy for Australia. Further, these priority actions have been endorsed by a range of academic, public health, consumer and other groups. This consensus delivers a rigorous and evidence-based agenda to our Federal Government and establishes the key elements to include in a national strategy as well as the basis for an ongoing dialogue about the best ways to address the obesity epidemic.

Categories:Non-national obesity strategies
Year(s):2017 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Global obesity centre; Obesity Policy Coalition
Find out more:www.opc.org.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (n.d.) TIPPING THE SCALES. [Online]. Available from: https://www.opc.org.au/downloads/tipping-the-scales/tipping-the-scales.pdf.

Western Australia Health Promotion Strategic Framework 2017-2021

A five year plan to reduce preventable chronic disease and injury in communities

Categories:Evidence of NCD strategy
Year(s):2017-2021
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government of Western Australia, Department of Health
Find out more:ww2.health.wa.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (2017a) A five-year plan to reduce preventable chronic disease and injury in our communities. [Online]. Available from: https://ww2.health.wa.gov.au/-/media/Files/Corporate/Reports-and-publications/HPSF/WA-Health-Promotion-Strategic-Framework-2017-2021.pdf.

Health Star Rating (HSR)

The Health Star Rating is a front-of-pack labelling system that rates the overall nutritional profile of packaged food and assigns it a rating. It provides a quick, easy, standard way to compare similar packaged foods. It is being implemented on a voluntary basis by the food industry.

Categories:Labelling Regulation/Guidelines
Year(s):2014 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:The Health Star Rating system was developed by the Australian, state and territory governments in collaboration with industry, public health and consumer groups.
Find out more:healthstarrating.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (2011) Health Star Rating. [Online]. 2011. Healthstarrating.gov.au. Available from: http://www.healthstarrating.gov.au/internet/healthstarrating/publishing.nsf/content/home.

Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Overweight and Obesity

This is a set of clinical practice guidelines for the management of overweight and obesity in adults, adolescents and children in Australia. The Guidelines make recommendations regarding the management of individuals who have a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25.0 kg/m2 and are at risk or currently have an obesity related comorbidity._x000D__x000D_ _x000D__x000D_

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:National Health and Medical Research Council
Find out more:www.nhmrc.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (2013) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the management of overweight and obesity | NHMRC. [Online]. 10 October 2013. Nhmrc.gov.au. Available from: https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/about-us/publications/clinical-practice-guidelines-management-overweight-and-obesity.

Eat For Health: Australian dietary guidelines.

These guidelines aim to promote the benefits of healthy eating, not only to reduce the risk of diet-related disease but also to improve community health and wellbeing.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:National Health and Medical Research Council
Find out more:www.nhmrc.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (2013a) Australian Dietary Guidelines | NHMRC. [Online]. 7 February 2013. Nhmrc.gov.au. Available from: https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/about-us/publications/australian-dietary-guidelines#block-views-block-file-attachments-content-block-1.

National Preventive Health Research Strategy 2013-2018 A Priority-Driven Research Agenda for Obesity Prevention

This document outlines priorities for research in the context of obesity prevention policies. It organises research questions related to obesity prevention policies into ten key domains: 1) economic interventions 2) supply, access and availability of food 3) advertising, promotion and sponsorship 4) public education, awareness and engagement 5) packaging and labelling of food 6) reshaping physical environments towards healthy options 7) settings and community based approaches 8) maternal and child health 9) high risk population groups 10) emerging issues and cross-cutting themes.

Categories (partial):Non-national obesity strategies
Year(s):2013-2018
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Australian National Preventive Health Agency and the Government of Western Australia, Department of Health
Find out more:health.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Australian National Preventive Health Agency and Government of Western Australia, A Priority-Driven Research Agenda for Obesity Prevention, in National Preventive Health Research Strategy 2013-2018 2013, Australian Government: Canberra.

New South Wales Healthy Eating and Active Living Strategy: Preventing overweight and obesity in New South Wales 2013-2018

This document outlines goals and objectives related to obesity, healthy eating and physical activity. It details the current status of obesity and its antecedents in different age groups, as well as what actions the New South Wales government will be taking to address obesity. This includes four strategic directions; environments to support healthy eating and active living, state-wide healthy eating and active living support programs, healthy eating and active living advice as part of routine service delivery, and education and information to enable informed, healthy choices.

Categories:Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Non-national obesity strategies
Year(s):2013-2018
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:New South Wales (NSW) Ministry of Health
Find out more:www.health.nsw.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:New South Wales Government, NSW Healthy Eating and Active Living Strategy: Preventing overweight and obesity in New South Wales 2013-2018. 2013, New South Wales Government, Department of Health: Sydney.

Obesity: a call for urgent action. Federal obesity policies.

This call to action recommends four key actions to address obesity, including the development of a national healthy weight strategy, reducing children to unhealthy food marketing, supporting the effective implementation of the health star rating food labelling system, and investigate food pricing policies to encourage healthier eating patters.

Categories (partial):Non-national obesity strategies
Year(s):2013
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Obesity Policy Coalition
Find out more:www.opc.org.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Obesity Policy Coalition, Obesity: a call for urgent action. Federal obesity policies. 2013, Obesity Policy Coalition: Melbourne.

Shape Up Australia

An initiative to help Australians reduce their waist measurements and improve their overall health and wellbeing. 'Shape Up Australia' was a national obesity-prevention and healthy lifestyle campaign, funded through the National partnership agreement on preventive health, and launched in February 2013. It was administered by the Australian National Preventive Health Agency (ANPHA), whose essential functions have since been transferred to the Department of Health. Shape Up Australia followed on from previous ANPHA campaigns, including 'Swap It, Don't Stop It' and 'Measure Up'. Organisations who partnered with the initiative were able to use the 'Shape Up Australia' brand to promote their services, resources and programs to consumers.

Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Non-national obesity strategies
Year(s):2013
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Australian National Preventative Health Agency
Find out more:healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au
References:Anon (n.d.) Programs - Promote and practice. [Online]. Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet. Available from: https://healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/key-resources/programs-and-projects/1796/ [Accessed: 5 July 2020h]. ‌

Summary guide for the management of overweight and obesity in Primary care

Information on how to assess and manage overweight and obesity in adults, adolescents and children. This summary guide includes key messages, recommendations, practice points, and_x000D__x000D_ management models. Recommendations and practice points (PPs) have retained their gradings from the Obesity Guidelines.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Australian Government, National Health and Medical Research Council.
Find out more:nhmrc.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Australian Government, National Health and Medical Research Council. 2013. Summary guide for the management of overweight and obesity in Primary care. Available from: https://www.hneccphn.com.au/media/14254/nh-and-mrc-obesity_guidelines_summary_guide_131219.pdf. [Accessed 18 December 2018].

Towards Zero Growth: Healthy Weight Action Plan

This document outlines the proposed actions the Australian Capital Territory government will take towards preventing obesity and overweight within the state. It outlines a list of actions to be taken within differing themes that include workplaces, urban planning, schools, social inclusion, food environment and evaluation.

Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Non-national obesity strategies
Year(s):2013 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Department of Health
Find out more:www.health.act.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Australian Capital Territory Government, Towards Zero Growth: Healthy Weight Action Plan, Australian Capital Territory Government, Editor. 2013: Canberra.

LiveLighter

LiveLighter is a public health education program that aims to encourage people to eat well, be physically active and maintain a healthy weight. The LiveLighter program engages with Australian adults through social media, using digital platforms, and with printed tools and resources

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2012 (ongoing)
Target age group:Adults
Organisation:Cancer Council WA
Find out more:livelighter.com.au

Policy at a glance: Marketing of food and beverages to children

The frameworks guide consistent and robust reviews for parties interested in either monitoring or reviewing children's exposure to marketing and advertising of unhealthy foods and drinks, or monitoring compliance of the food industry self-regulatory marketing to children initiatives.

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2012 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:National Preventative Health Agency
Find out more:www.phaa.net.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (n.d.) Public Health Association of Australia: Policy-at-a-glance: Marketing of Food and Beverages to Children. ‌

School-based Systems Change for Obesity Prevention in Adolescents: Outcomes of the Australian Capital Territory 'It's Your Move!'

Intervention incorporated multiple initatives at individual, community and school policy levels to facilitate healthier nutrition and physical activity. Intervention school-specific objectives related to increasing active transport, physical actiity and mental wellbeing.

Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2012-2014
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Malakellis, M., Hoare, E., Sanigorski, A., Crooks, N., et al. (2017) School-based systems change for obesity prevention in adolescents: outcomes of the Australian Capital Territory ‘It’s Your Move!’ Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. [Online] 41 (5), 490–496. Available from: doi:10.1111/1753-6405.12696 [Accessed: 23 May 2019]. ‌
Find out more:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Malakellis et al. (2017). School-based systems change for obesity prevention in adolescents: outcomes of the Australian Capital Territory 'It's Your Move!'. Aust N Z J Public Health. 41(5):490-496.

Eat Well Be Active Strategy 2011-16

This document outlines five action areas that the state of South Australia aims to undertake to increase healthy eating and physical activity, with the aim of preventing and managing overweight and obesity.

Categories:Evidence of Management/treatment guidelines
Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Evidence of Multidisciplinary Intervention
Year(s):2011-2016
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government of South Australia, Department of Health
Find out more:www.sahealth.sa.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Government of South Australia, Eat Well Be Active Strategy 2011-16. 2011, Government of South Australia, Department of Health: Adelaide.

Healthy Together Victoria

Healthy Together Victoria is population-wide health policy effort set up to tackle the rising rates of overweight and obesity and related chronic disease. It targets change in the places where Victorians live, work, learn and play. Healthy Together Victoria is working with childcare centres, schools, workplaces, food outlets, sporting clubs, businesses, local governments, health professionals and more to create healthier environments._x000D__x000D_

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Non-national obesity strategies
Categories (partial):Evidence of Nutritional or Health Strategy/ Guidelines/Policy/Action plan
Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2011 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:The Department of Health and Human Services
Find out more:www.healthytogether.vic.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Strugnell, C., Millar, L., Churchill, A., Jacka, F., et al. (2016) Healthy together Victoria and childhood obesity—a methodology for measuring changes in childhood obesity in response to a community-based, whole of system cluster randomized control trial. Archives of Public Health. [Online] 74 (1). Available from: doi:10.1186/s13690-016-0127-y [Accessed: 13 May 2019]. ‌

National Cycling Strategy

This strategy is the next step in helping more people to realise those benefits. Building on the National Cycling Strategy 2005 - 2010, it identifies a series of actions to help more people get on their bikes, and start riding for a better life. This strategy sets out a series of actions that will help to deliver its overarching vision which is to double the number of people cycling in Australia over the next five years. This will require the commitment and support of governments and non-government organisations across the country. The Australian Bicycle Council (ABC) is the national body that manages and coordinates implementation of The Australian National Cycling Strategy (NCS). Over recent years, Australia has seen a significant growth in bicycle ownership and use. Australians are becoming increasingly aware of the convenience, enjoyment and widespread health and environmental benefits of cycling, and, as a result, initiatives to promote and increase this activity have been incorporated into many government agency programs within the portfolios of Health, Road and Transport, Education, Environment, Tourism, Sport and Local Government. The NCS has been developed as a coordinating framework identifying responsibilities that lie with the various governments at all levels, as well as community and industry stakeholders, to encourage and facilitate increased cycling in Australia. It sets out actions, with targets, timeframes and resources that will ensure the continued growth of this important component of Australia’s transport system.

Categories:Evidence of Physical Activity Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2011-2016
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Australian Bicycle Council
Find out more:www.bicyclecouncil.com.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (2011a) Cycling to the future Australian Bicycle Council. [Online]. Available from: https://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/committees/THLGC/2013/INQ-CYC/tp-18Jun2013NCS.pdf [Accessed: 5 July 2020]. ‌

Finish with the Right Stuff

This programme encourages children who participate in junior community sport to eat and drink healthier at sport before, during and after the game. Water is promoted as a drink of choice instead of sugar sweetened drinks and club canteens are supported to provide and promote healthier food options to make it easier for parents and children to make smarter food choices.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2009 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:NSW Ministry of Health - part of the NSW Healthy Children Initiative
Find out more:www.rightstuff.health.nsw.gov.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (n.d.) http://www.rightstuff.health.nsw.gov.au/. [Online]. www.rightstuff.health.nsw.gov.au. Available from: https://www.rightstuff.health.nsw.gov.au/ [Accessed: 1 July 2020d]. ‌

Go4Fun

Go4Fun is a ten week healthy lifestyle program for kids aged 7 to 13 years, run by qualified health professionals. The program aims to improve the health of the child through the development of healthy lifestyle behaviours, as well as educating and positively affecting kids' attitude to food and exercise. It was originally adapted from the MEND (Mind, Exercise, Nutrition, Do it! ) program which was designed and developed by health professionals in the United Kingdom before being modified to comply with Australian policies and guidelines.

Categories:Evidence of Community Interventions/Campaign
Year(s):2009 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:NSW Ministry of Health - NSW Healthy Children Initiative
Find out more:go4fun.com.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (n.d.) Home. [Online]. Go4Fun. Available from: https://go4fun.com.au/.

National Prevention Health Strategy: The Healthiest Country by 2020

The Strategy provides a blueprint for tackling the burden of chronic disease currently caused by obesity, tobacco, and excessive consumption of alcohol.

Categories:Evidence of NCD strategy
Year(s):2009-2020
Target age group:Adults and children
Organisation:Government: The National Preventative Health Taskforce
Find out more:extranet.who.int
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (n.d.) AUSTRALIA: THE HEALTHIEST COUNTRY BY 2020. [Online]. Available from: https://extranet.who.int/nutrition/gina/sites/default/files/AUS%202009%20National%20Preventative%20Health%20Strategy.pdf [Accessed: 5 July 2020b]. ‌

The Responsible Children's Marketing Initiative (RCMI)

The RCMI is an initiative developed to demonstrate the Australian Food and Beverage Industry commitment to responsible marketing on food and beverages to children.

Categories:Evidence of Marketing Guidelines/Policy
Year(s):2009 (ongoing)
Target age group:Children
Organisation:Australian Food & Beverage Industry
Find out more:www.afgc.org.au
Linked document:Download linked document
References:Anon (n.d.) Australian Food and Grocery Council RESPONSIBLE CHILDREN’S MARKETING INITIATIVE. [Online]. Available from: https://extranet.who.int/ncdccs/Data/AUS_B19_Responsible-Childrens-Marketing-Initiative-March-2018-1.pdf [Accessed: 6 July 2020c]. ‌

No actions could be found for the above criteria.

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